Objectives of the study:
To study the extend of availability of hardware and software facilities in schools in Delhi.
To study the extend of use of technologies in different types of schools as evident from competencies in schools.
To study the impact of ICT on students.
To study the extend of training in computers received by the teachers of Delhi.
To what extend are the ICT facility is actually available in the schools in Delhi?
How are these facilities used by schools?
What percentage of school teachers are computer trained?
How are the ICT incorporated in the school?
What is the impact of ICT on student learning?
Are the schools having favorable attitude towards ICT integration?
Sample of the study
Sample of different types of schools covered:
In this study, a total of 309 schools were selected randomly. The sample was made of 157 govt. Schools 52 Govt. Aided schools, 93 public schools, 5 Kendriya Vidyalayas and 2 Jamia Schools.
Sample of primary school students:
In this study a total of 822 primary school students participated. The sample was made of 242 govt school students, 115 govt. aided school students 260 public school students, 120 Kendriya Vidyalaya students and 85 Jamia school students of primary level.
Sample of class VII/VIII students:
In this study a total of 970 class VII/VIII students selected randomly from 47 schools. The sample was made of 438 govt. school students, 162 govt. aided school students, 206 public school students, 70 Kendriya Vidyalaya students and 94 Jamia School students.
Sample of teachers:
In this study, a total of 196 teachers participated. The sample was made of 108 Govt. school teachers, 15 Govt. Aided school teachers, 47 public school teachers, 10 Kendriya Vidyalaya teachers and 28 Jamia School teachers.
Questionnaire for Heads of Schools.
Questionnaire for students of Primary Class Students.
Questionnaire for students of Classes (VII/VIII).
Questionnaire for Teachers.
Method of the study:
The present study was an exploratory study using survey method.
Frequency count and percentage analysis.
Availability of ICT In Delhi Schools
School having e-mail ID: 9.5% off Govt. schools, 11.5 % of Govt. aided, 13.9% of public and 20% KVS schools reported that they have an e mail ID. SCERT (2007) claims that all the schools in Delhi and all teachers are given an E-MIS mail Id and through which each employee can directly communicate with the highest authority. The awareness of schools regarding it in all the different types of schools seemed to be low.
Computers availability in schools in Delhi: 94% of the total schools in Delhi have computers. While 100%of KVS and Jamia Schools have computers 97% of the public schools and 87% of govt. aided schools have computers.
The average number of computer available in govt. schools was 11, 14 in Govt. aided, 32 in Public Schools, 36 in KVS and 50 in Jamia and average number of computers per student was 99 in Govt school, 55 in Govt. aided, 32 in Public School, 65 in KVS and 60 in Jamia.
The percentage of Computers in Good Conditions in Govt. Schools is 91.89%, in Govt. Aided schools 84.44% in public schools 96.67%, in KVS and Jamia 100.00% and total schools studied 92.41%.
There were computer labs in 84% of the schools studied. There was Computer lab in 79.62% Govt. schools, 80.77% Govt-aided schools, 93.55% Private schools, 80% KV, 100% Jamia Schools.
There was the facility of Printer available in 79.62% Govt. Schools, 80.77% Govt. aided schools, 93.55% private schools, 80% KV, 100% Jamia Schools.
Scanner was present in 29% of the schools.
Delhi Government has set up CAL classrooms in 200 schools out of the 930 schools Each of the CAL classrooms was equipped with one computer, one 29" Television monitor, computer cabinet and colorful chairs
The availability of laptop in percentage is 0 in Govt schools,5.77% in Govt aided schools. 19.35% in private schools, 20% in KVS, 0% and 7.12% of the total schools studied.
The availability of data lodger was poor as only 1.94% of total schools studied and 13% of total school studied had an LCD projector.
The availability of Internet
facility in the school are excellent, 74.52% of government
schools,75% percent of Govt aided, 63% of public 80% percent of
KVs and 100% Jamia schools have Internet facility.
The availability of local net working of computers is also very important for using ICT in the schools 66% of Government schools ,60% of Govt aided schools, 55 % of private schools, 80% KVS and 50% Jamia schools reported of having LAN 9.55% of govt. schools, 385% of govt aided schools,16 13% of public schools, 40% of KVS, 50% of Jamia schools and 11 33 of the total sample of schools reported of having Internet filtering facility which is essential for preventing the access of certain web sites and emails by children and teachers 764% of Govt schools , 385% of Govt aided schools, 19 35% of private schools ,60% of K.V and 0 % of Jamia and 1133% of total schools only possessed an interactive white board.
Internet, LAN A and Interactive white board are the technologies that equip the teacher equipped to handle classes of the twenty first century providing learning environments which could make the learner construct knowledge and be active learners rather than passive listeners in the class Findings of this study suggest the schools are ready to take up e-learning environments as 71.5% of the schools studied have Internet connection. An interactive white-board if made available in classrooms could make a big difference.
Availability of Software 20.38% of Govt. schools, 3.08% of Govt-aided schools, 23.66% of private schools, 60% KVS, 0% Jamia Schools and 22.33% of total schools have publishing software. 3.18% of govt. schools, 7.69% of Govt. aided schools, 21.51% private schools, 20% KVS, 0% Jamia schools and 9.71% of total schools have software for web design.
General knowledge CDs are available only in 1.91% Govt, 9.62% Govt aided, 44% private, 40% KVS and 0%Jamia and 16.5% total schools covered in this study. Encarta and other encyclopedia CDs are available only in 1.91% Govt, 962 % Govt aided, 24.73 % private, 40% KVS and 0% Jamia schools covered in this study.
On-line libraries: vThis facility is available only in 1.91% Govt schools 7.69% Govt aided schools, 9.68% private schools 20% KVS and 0% Jamia schools and 5.5% total schools covered in this study.
Students will use them when the resource use is integrated with the learning tasks /assignments suggested by the teacher For making use of the computers to prepare assignments, for giving room for creativity resources like publishing software, software for web design or CD s and for enhancing general knowledge line Encarta or access to on-line libraries may help a lot. Though 22% schools had publishing software 971% had software for web design, General Knowledge CDs were available in schools in 16 5%, in 10 68% schools Encarta and access to on-line libraries were available in5 5% of schools.
No. of Periods Per Week Per Class Available for Computers:
At the nursery level only public schools separate periods for using computers but no govt. schools have any such arrangement.
At the primary level: Only 2% schools had separate periods for computers.
At upper primary school level: Only 68.93% schools had separate periods for computers.
At secondary Level: Only 61.48% schools had separate periods for computers.
At higher secondary level, only 43.68% schools had separate periods for computers.
In schools, where the CAL toonz project were implemented one period per day per section was to be allocated for computer classes (teaching in the computer lab).
In the Mahiti Sindhu Programme in Karnataka each class gets four periods per weeks. In the IT @ School Project four periods per week (2 for theory and 2 for practicals) are allocated. In Delhi, allocation of periods per week for computers have to improve.
Uses of ICT/ Computer in Schools in Delhi:
In admission process 92.99% Govt. Schools, 53.85% Govt-aided schools, 87.1% Public Schools, 80% KVS and 100% Jamia schools use of computers in admission process.
For maintaining records Only 3758 %Govt Schools, 50 54 % Public Schools. 67 31% Govt Aided , 40% KVS and 100% Jamia reported use of computers for maintaining records.
In Library. Only 18.77% of the schools covered in this study used it for maintaining records . Only 22.93%Govt Schools, 16.13 % Public Schools, 9.62, Govt Aided , 20% KVS and 50% Jamia.
In Examinations: Only 12.6% of total schools covered in this study used computers for examination purpose.
Computer as teaching subject 81% of the schools covered under this study had computer as a teaching subject.
Impact of ICT on Students:
The Delhi government in its pilot project with 200 government schools reported that the ICT made a difference in children's dropout rate (7 5% decrease in drop out rate when compared with schools without CAL(57%).
The enrollment of students in schools with CAL Increased at 13.97% when compared with 11.93% in non CAL schools and the results also improved in the terminal examination.
In this study, the effect of ICT Competency on students' achievement, time spent on studies and interests were explored and the findings are:
Secondary Students' Achievement in different types of schools. In this study achievement of students was taken as the annual examination marks 22.63% had scored 35.50% marks and 11% scored above 81%
The ICT competency of the secondary school children 16.80% of students had low ICT Competency and 56.66% had average and 26.54% had high ICT competency.
Category wise, Students with different levels of ICT Competency was compared with their achievement and it was found that those who scored low in ICT competency had low achievement also, with a few exceptions.
Time spent on studies by students The time spent n studies is higher in the case of students who were having average and high ICT scores when compared with those who had low scores in ICT competency.
On an average majority of students belonging to all groups spent only 2-3 hours per day for studying.
The three groups low, average and high ICT groups did not differ in the interests in the case of computer, but the low ICT competency group was interested in studying/ reading whereas average competency group was interested in games.
Teachers Trained to use Computers in classroom teaching:
Training: It was found that 35.2% of teachers have had no training in computers.
rained in computers 648 % of the teachers who took part in the study reported they were trained in computers 32% of the teachers had received Departmental training Computer Education. 12% of the total sample had Intel training. Rest of the teachers 21% had some technical qualification.
In a country where only 10.73% of all schools (Mehta,2007) are having computers, Delhi has more than 90% schools having computers. About 3395 (74.75%) schools had computers in Delhi in 2005-06. This facility with its great potential to improve the quality of education will remain under utilized. If teachers are not trained to make optimum use of technology in the classroom. 50.5% of the teachers felt that the training they received was insufficient for computer application in classroom teaching.
Availability or Access to computers for Teachers:
number of computers at home: 53% teachers had no computers at home.
Time spent with computers: Time spent by teachers using computers is very less. 55% teachers spend any time, 2.8% half an hour, 9.1% devote one hour, 3.5% spend 2 hours and 2.0 % spend 3 hours and 4 hours each on computers.
Confidence to use computers: the training or exposure of teachers not withstanding, a high majority i.e, 83% of the teachers who took part in this study felt confident that if they get computers they will surely use computers for their classroom teaching.
Preparedness for ICT: In the sample of teachers who took part in the study except for 3.57% teachers others were not computer teachers, they were willing to undergo further training and use computers in classroom teaching.
Other Conditions Favorable For Integration Of ICT In Schools in Delhi:
schools having their websites.
Belief that ICT could improve.
Managements favor technology.
Evidence of integration of technology in their curriculum.
Welcome innovative ideas.
The government should take appropriate steps to ensure that all schools hyave computers in their classrooms.
The ICT facilities should be made available to all students right from pre primary to senior secondary level.
Training in effective use of ICT should be provided to all teachers, the In-service education programme should be made an ongoing process.
The Cds as the ones provided through CALtoonz will provide only information to children and it will not enhance all those skills associated with ICT in children unless and until it is used appropriately. It needs further training for teachers.
The initial teacher training ie, The B.Ed and diploma in Elementary education in Delhi must make ICT an integral component. The ICT skills that the trainee should possess by the end of training should be enlisted.
More research in ICT In schools are to be conducted.
Providing Pcs or laptops or hand held computers to teachers must be given a serious thought, as nothing- training or motivation could make a teacher really use unless it is accessible to them.
Keyword(s): ICT(Information Communication Technology), ICT Competency, Availability of ICT, Use of computers