The main objective of the study was to find the relationship between nine areas of Multiple Intelligence and Teacher Effectiveness of Secondary School teachers. The study also aimed at drawing up a Multiple Intelligences based profile for effective teachers.
The main hypothesis of the study was stated in null form as follows: There is no definite relationship between the nine areas of Multiple Intelligence and Teacher Effectiveness of Secondary School teachers. Several other hypotheses were formed bearing in mind the variables involved in the study.
The sample consisted of 300 Secondary School teachers; all minimum graduates and professionally trained from Marathi and English medium schools within the geographical limits of Mumbai city and its suburbs. Teachers teaching Languages, Social Sciences, Science and Mathematics were part of the sample. Multi stage cluster sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The sample size of students was 3000, where each teacher was evaluated by 10 students. These students were selected by random sampling
To ascertain Teacher Effectiveness, the investigator prepared a Likert type five point rating scale to find process effectiveness, product effectiveness and contextual effectiveness and presage effectiveness. Students used this tool to evaluate their teachers. The scale on presage effectiveness was administered to the teachers. The reliability of the tool was 0.82 by Test –retest Method and 0.92 by Split Half method. The teachers also had to respond to a Multiple Intelligence scale with 108 statements. The reliability of this tool was 0.7 by Test retest Method and 0.693 by Split Half method. All tools were validated by a panel of experts.
The study could be described as a Quantitative Study carried out using the Descriptive Research Methodology. The tools were administered to the students and teachers who comprised the sample.
Measures such as t test, ANOVA to test inter group significance of means, Pearson’s moment correlation and coefficient of determination were used to draw an effective profile. Multiple Regression was used to find the best fit equation to determine the relationship between Teacher Effectiveness and Multiple Intelligences.e teachers also had to respond to a Multiple Intelligence scale with 108 statements. The reliability of this tool was 0.7 by Test retest Method and 0.693 by Split Half method. All tools were validated by a panel of experts.
A brief summary of the findings of the study is given below:
§ Effective Teachers display high scores in all areas of Multiple Intelligence as compared to their Average or Low Effectiveness counterparts. The degree to which they exhibit Multiple Intelligences is even more profound for Existential, Inter Personal and Logical Intelligences
§ Teachers with Higher Teacher Effectiveness show higher Multiple Intelligences in all areas.
§ In case of both, teachers from Humanities faculty and teachers from Science faculty, Existential Intelligence and Inter Personal Intelligence are seen to have a profound effect on Teacher Effectiveness.
Teachers with High Inter Personal, Existential and Logical Intelligences are more effective than those who are Low in the above mentioned Intelligences.
From the statistical operations done on the data it is seen that Inter Personal and Existential Intelligences once again show a high bearing on Process Effectiveness. The effect of Verbal, Logical, Visual, Kinaesthetic Intelligences on Process effectiveness is significant at the 0.05 level.
The analysis of Product Effectiveness scores showed that for Teachers who score high on Product Effectiveness, Logical, Visual, Kinaesthetic Intelligences are significantly higher at the 0.05 level than those Teachers who score less on Product Effectiveness. In case of Inter Personal and Existential Intelligences the difference in means is significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusively it may be said that there is need for a teacher to think logically and anticipate what problems the student may encounter during learning.
The effectiveness of these roles is probed to by contextual effectiveness which refers to those components that whilst not a part of actual classroom teaching are yet an integral part of the teacher’s role and they include interaction with students and their parents outside class, the rapport shared by the teacher with students and parents that contributes towards the achievement of the teacher’s objectives of all round development of the student. It was seen that there is significant difference between the means of Logical, Visual, and Interpersonal Intelligences at the 0.05 level when the means for Teachers with High Contextual effectiveness and Low Contextual effectiveness were considered. This difference in means was found significant at the 0.01 level in case of Existential Intelligence.
In case of Presage Effectiveness it is seen that teachers with High Presage Effectiveness show significant difference in means for all areas of Multiple Intelligences when compared to their counterparts with Low Presage Effectiveness. Those with High Presage Effectiveness are good planners planning for details about co relation, evaluation activities. They update themselves regarding changes in their respective subjects, take the help of co teachers to enhance their effectiveness and are ready to attend sessions for upgrading their skills and knowledge.
From the above discussion it is generally seen that Existential and Inter Personal Intelligences have a marked effect on Teacher Effectiveness. Kinaesthetic, Verbal and Logical Intelligences seem to be the next group that have an effect on Teacher Effectiveness. Areas as Intra Personal, Naturalistic, Musical Intelligences seem to have the least impact on Teacher Effectiveness. Visual Intelligence also figures as an area of considerable impact on Teacher Effectiveness.
It is seen that Teachers displaying Low Effectiveness use Lecture Method to a significantly greater extent as compared to teachers with High Effectiveness. Verbal Intelligence of Teachers with High Effectiveness is higher than Teachers with Lower Verbal Intelligence. This means that despite having High Verbal Intelligence, teachers with High effectiveness use Lecture method (a method likely to be linked with Verbal Intelligence) judiciously. It was also seen that Teachers with High effectiveness show significantly greater use of Computer Aided Instruction when compared to their counterparts with Low Effectiveness.
The relationship between use of different techniques of teaching and areas of Multiple Intelligence was studied. It was seen that for almost all areas of Multiple Intelligence Teachers who were Low in a given area of Multiple Intelligence tended to use lecture method to a significantly greater extent than their counterparts who were high in that Multiple Intelligence. There is some bearing between teachers’ areas of high Multiple Intelligence and the use of teaching techniques. Those showing high scores in Verbal Intelligence used Discussion and Songs to a significantly greater extent than those who were low in Verbal Intelligence. Logically inclined teachers used demonstrations, Project work, Small group Learning and Computer Aided Techniques more than the others. Those who reported high scores for Visual Intelligence tended to use more of Demonstrations, Projects work, Small group Learning and Computer Aided Techniques. Musically inclined teachers reported greater use of games and Jingles and songs in their teaching. Kinesthetically gifted teachers used demonstrations and Small group learning to a greater extent than those not high on Kinaesthetic Intelligence. Teachers with High Inter Personal Intelligence showed significantly greater use of games, demonstrations, Small Group Learning and Jingles in teaching. Teachers who reported high scores in Existential Intelligence were found to use games, demonstrations, discussions, Small group Learning and Jingles top a significantly greater extent.
Teachers high in Multiple Intelligences took more efforts to plan their interaction techniques rather than just depending upon lecture method. Teachers who reported lesser scores in different areas of Multiple Intelligence were found to be complacent in the use of one or two techniques. More child centred methods were used by teachers who were high in Inter Personal, Existential and Kinaesthetic intelligences.
Teachers who were found to be high on Effectiveness were those with motherly qualities, ones who were impartial, ones who empathized with the students. The students do not prefer teachers with double standards. Generally students appreciate being corrected by their teachers. Teachers who are normally accepted are ones who teach well, are reasonable in their behaviour and treat all students equally. Acceptance of students by teachers, the readiness to solve doubts and the amount of approachability they exhibit is also important. On the other hand biased teachers, those who are rude in speech, those who criticize without respecting the students’ dignity are unpopular.
Based on Multiple Regression coefficients, a profile for an Effective teacher would require the teacher to be strong in the various areas of Multiple Intelligence according to the following order: Existential Intelligence, Kinesthetic Intelligence, Inter Personal Intelligence, Logical Intelligence, Verbal Intelligence, Visual Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Intra Personal Intelligence and Naturalistic Intelligence.
Effective teachers need to be positive in approach (to build rapport, generate enthusiasm, maintain interest and provide scaffolding as per required).They must be proactive( to make things happen, be a catalyst) , help learners learn, recognise when action needs to be taken and take it, They must also be patient( to understand the needs of each learner as well as the group and to adapt to their timeframes as far as possible). They also need to be persistent( to keep at things, stop learners from drifting away, and deal with any technical or other problems ).The teacher need intuition, initiative and assertiveness, the ability to assess student needs by picking up on hints and reading between the lines. The study provides a strong base for Teacher Training Programmes both at Pre service and In service levels. There is the need to address the various areas of Multiple Intelligence and provide training to strengthen areas that directly impact Teacher Effectiveness. Teachers should be trained to make judicious use of Verbal Intelligence. Existential Intelligence, Kinesthetic Intelligence and Interpersonal Intelligence need to be well developed for greater Teacher Effectiveness.
Keyword(s): Multiple Intelligence, Teacher Effectiveness