Objectives of the study:
To delineate the profiles of teacher trainees in three colleges of education in Jammu City with respect to Trainee’s background/characteristics viz.
c) Intelligence level
e) Home Background
f) Family Background
g) Caste and Religion
h) Motives for joining the Profession
i) Difficulties Experienced
j) Attitudes and Values
To delineate the profiles of colleges of education in Jammu City with respect to Institutional Variables namely
a) Institutional Infrastructure
b)Quality of Teaching Staff
c) Institutional Climate
d) Leadership Style of the Head
To delineate the profiles of teacher educators in three colleges of education in Jammu City with respect to Institutional Variables namely
a) Age, Qualifications, Experience, Workload, Daily Schedule, Problems Faced etc.
b) Classroom Teaching Behavior of Teacher Educators
c) Innovative Proneness
d) Teaching Strategies
To study the training outcomes of the trainees with respect to Variables namely
a) Proficiency in Teaching
b) Achievement in Terms of Marks Obtained in Annual University Examination in Theory and Practice of Teaching
c) Attitudes towards Teaching Profession
d) Value Structure
e) Teaching Effectiveness
To study inter group and intragroup differences on different Institutional, Instructional and Trainee Variables selected for the study.
To explore the relationship between Trainees Background, Institutional and Instructional Variables, and Training Outcomes.
To suggest ways and means to optimize Training Outcomes and Impact of Colleges of Education in Jammu City in the light of findings of the study.
The sample selected for the present study comprised of 500 teacher trainees and 50 teacher educators in three colleges of education in Jammu City. However, due to incomplete data, non-availability and related factors, the final sample was reduced to 450 in case of teacher trainees while the number of teacher educators was reduced to 34. besides the above, a sample of 200 in-service teachers was selected for establishing the reliability and validity of tools specially prepared for the present study.
Proforma for Profiles of Teacher Trainees.
Proforma for Profiles of Teacher Educators.
Schedule for Profiles of Colleges of Education.
Teaching Strategies Inventory.
Teacher Attitude Scale.
Innovative Proneness Inventory.
Institutional Climate Inventory
Projective Test of Individual and Social Values by A.
Teaching Effectiveness Scale.
Non-Verbal Test of Intelligence by Dr. Karuna Shankar Misra.
Teaching Proficiency Scale by J.S. Grewal
Classroom Interaction Analysis Technique by Dr. A. K. Gupta and Sharma.
Leadership Style Questionnaire by H.M. Singh
The method adopted for the present investigation can be described as normative or descriptive statistical in nature.
Frequencies and Percentages
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Contrasted Group Analysis (Critical Ratios)
Matrix Analysis and Indices of Classroom Teaching
Measures of Association Namely Product Moment, Correlation Coefficient (r)
Profiles of Teacher Trainees:
A majority of trainees in the teacher training colleges are females(58%).
58% of trainees come from rural background.
Near half of the teacher trainees were found to come from the homes where either the father or the mother had qualification up to Higher secondary or less. Also, parents of half of the trainees were found to be employed in the government or semi government services.
More than three fourth of the trainees were graduates with science background (B.Sc.) and only one fourth were postgraduates.
The average age of a trainee was found to be 22 years.
Half of the teacher trainees were found to be residing in the rented accommodation in Jammu City.
3 out of 4 teacher trainees in the colleges of education in Jammu city were found to be from Hindi speaking families while the rest had Dogri, Punjabi and Kashmiri as their mother tongues.
The major difficulties faced by the teacher trainees in order of magnitude were due to
a) Busy Schedule
b) Very Little Leisure Time
c) Few Hours of Library Facilities
d) Little Availability of Entertainment and
e)Lack of Proper Facilities of study
Motives behind joining the course:
Interest in the course
Desire to Increase Professional Qualifications
Desire for acquiring a Better Qualification
Fulfillment of Parent’s Wishes
Need to Join Government Service.
Among the teacher trainees, attitudes are bound to be positive since they have chosen the profession on their own and some kind of positive learning is bound to be there towards towards teaching profession.
Since intelligence and achievement are two correlated variables, students who have reached the post graduation stage are likely to have somewhat higher intelligence level in general.
Profiles of Colleges of Education:
In the colleges of education in the private sector, the intake is in accordance with the number permitted by the Jammu University. Ie, 200 in college A and 183 in college B. The intake in the government college (College C) was fixed at 250.
All buildings occupied the three colleges of education have provisions for Principals room, office, staff room, seminar room, lecture room, audio visual aids room, play ground, dispensary, drinking water facility, toilets, canteen and telephone facility. Also, the rooms have proper blackboards, electrical fans and fittings, proper ventilation and proper seating arrangements.
Out of these three colleges of education, government sector did not have any practice teaching school.
Even though these colleges are having facilities for games like badminton, volleyball and basket ball, they had no provision of large ground for organizing major games/sports.
The hostels were found to be available for more students in the private sector.
The pay scale of principal was found to be 4500-7300 in two colleges except one of the private college where it was found to be 3700-5900.
The administrative staff in each of these three colleges were comprised of one office superintendent, one head assistant, one typist, one clerk and cashier and one medical supervisor.
The teacher pupil ratio in the government college was 1:20 while in the colleges in the private sector it ranged between 1:16 and 1:18.
All the three colleges had peons, one chowkidar, driver, gardener and sweeper.
The admission for the college of education in the government sector was being made through the Competent Authority Entrance Examinations of the J&K State government, where as the admissions for colleges of education in the private sector where being made through advertisement in local and national newspapers.
All the three colleges of education required more assistance for further growth and development from the government in the form of concessional rates for advertisement, grants from UGC/NCERT sources and grants for providing in-service training courses.
The colleges of education in government sector is having teachers with highest qualification and maximum teaching experience.
The private sector provide more similar supportive environment than government sectors.
The private colleges provide more democratic functioning as compared to government colleges. Also, the amount of structuredness in the government college is less than those of private colleges.
Principals in colleges of education need to be more consideration-oriented which can be reflected in their behavior.
Profiles of Teacher Educators:
The ratio of females and males in the colleges of education in jammu was found to be 3:1.
74% of teacher educators were found to lie in the age group of 29 to 49 years.
77% teacher educators had optimum qualifications prescribed for becoming a teacher educator.
Senior teacher educators can be said to be teaching in the three colleges of education in Jammu city.
Female teacher educators were found to be burdened with more load as compared to their male counter parts.
The daily responsibilities of teacher educators are pupil attendance, official records, house examinations, staff room responsibilities, pupil counselling and writing in journals and magazines.
The daily academic activities of teacher educators are lecturing, blackboard writing, removing student’s difficulties, planning future activities, interacting with students, questioning, practice of teaching, micro-teaching, individual attention, examination, students observation, dictation of notes, discussions and written/verbal tests.
The five most acutely faced problems by teacher educators are very little leisure time, very little chances of entertainment, inadequate library facilities, less encouragement by authorities and restrictive atmosphere.
Teacher educators have been found to consume 90% of their total time in lecturing or giving information and less than 5% of total time of the teacher educators is devoted to pupil talk.
More than 80% of the teacher educators in Jammu City make use of the innovative strategies in their day to day teaching.
Study of Training Outcomes and Some Inter-relationships:
There is a significant training outcome in-terms of gains in teaching proficiency, teaching effectiveness and teaching attitudes as a result of B.Ed. Training irrespective of the fact whether the trainee is enrolled in a private or govt. colleges of education.
The study reveals that there is no significant change in the values (personal, social, instrumental and terminal) of the trainees as a result of undergoing B.Ed. Training course in a govt. or privately run colleges of education.
Sex, Home background and Qualification of Teacher Trainees:
The study revealed that sex, Home Background and Qualification of the trainee significantly affect the achievement in practice of teaching.
It was found that sex, Home Background and Qualification of the trainee has not been significantly affect the achievement in theory.
It was found that sex, Home Background and Qualification of the trainee has not been significantly affect the achievement in terms of aggregate of marks in theory and practice of teaching.
Sex and home background have not been significantly influence the level of teaching effectiveness of the trainees.
The qualification of the trainee have a significant influence to the level of teaching effectiveness of the trainees.
The three variables Sex, Home background and Qualification taken together doesn't affect the attitude level of trainees.
The three variables Sex, Home background and Qualification taken together doesn't affect the proficiency level of trainees.
The three variables Sex, Home background and Qualification taken together doesn't influence the level of values among trainees.
The managements and the Principals of the colleges of education need to become more sensitive to the needs of teacher trainees enrolled in their colleges with regards to drinking water and local transportation. Also, the colleges of education need to stagger the timetable so as to provide time for leisure and recreation.
For counselling and guidance, separate profiles need to be maintained with respect to progress, performance and professional development.
The functioning of college libraries needs to be improved to make them more interactive and trainee friendly
The admission criteria need to be suitably modified to enable the trainees from rural and far off places to join teaching profession.
There is a need at the level of teacher educators to improve upon the class room verbal behavior and teaching methodology to minimize classroom lecturing, increasing appreciation and encouragement of trainees, improving questioning skills and the quality of interaction with the students as also encouraging students to take more initiative in the classroom situations. Teacher educators also need to improve upon the use of audio-visual techniques, pupil assessment and feed back techniques and encourage the extend of use of modern educational technology like OHP, computers etc. They also need to organize discussions, quizzes, workshops and involve themselves in programmes like environmental awareness, population education, adolscent education etc and also involve themselves in creative writing and publications. The issue of professional development of teacher educators requires to be addressed seriously.
As far as colleges of education are concerned, these institutions require to re-engineer themselves on modern democratic and management principles besides undertaking flexible and innovative programme of training and practice teaching and evaluation. The daily schedule of activities and timetable in colleges of education require to be changed to enable students to have leisure and recreation besides increasing access to library and other resources. The colleges need to encourage the application of educational and comunicational technologies and introduce reforms in the evaluation of teaching practice. These institutions need to take steps to convert them into centers of experimentation, research and innovations with inbuilt system of monitoring institutional and instructional inputs and processes.
Keyword(s): Teacher Educators, Training Outcomes