1. To find out the status and availability of the computers in the secondary schools. 2. To construct the tools to study the Knowledge, Attitude and Applications and Usage of Computers by the teachers at secondary level. 3. To find out the computer knowledge of the teachers at secondary level w. r. to their gender, age, qualifications, teaching subject, teaching experience, management of the school and location of the school 4. To find out the attitude of the teachers towards computers with reference to their gender, age, qualifications, teaching subject, teaching experience, management of the school and location of the school. 5. To study the level of usage and applications by the teachers for various tasks related to Word Processing, Desk Top Publishing, Spread Sheet applications, Data Base Management, Presentation Applications and Computers & Internet applications. 6. To find out the applications and usage of the computers by the teachers in relation to their gender, age, qualifications, teaching subject, teaching experience, management of the school and location of the school. 7. To study the relationship between the computer knowledge of the teachers and their application and usage of computers by the teachers. 8. To study the relationship between the attitude of the teachers and their application and usage of computers by the teachers.
1. There will be no influence of gender, age, teaching
experience, academic qualifications, locality, management of the schools,
teaching subjects of secondary school teachers on their computer knowledge,
attitude and applications & usage of computers 2. There will be no
significant relationship between the computer knowledge of the teachers and
their application and usage of computers by the teachers. 3. There will be no
significant relationship between the attitude of the teachers and their
application and usage of computers by the teachers.
The sample (320) of the present study was divided into two major strata i.e. Rural teachers (N=160) and Urban Teachers (N=160). Again these strata were divided into Government Success school teachers (N=40), government non-Success school teachers (N=40) and Private school teachers (N=80). Further, these sub-strata were divided into different subject teachers i.e. Language Teachers (N=20), Mathematics Teacher (N=20), Science Teachers (N=20), Social Studies Teachers (N=20). By adopting the Stratified Random Sampling technique, a total of 320 teachers were selected for final study, from 80 schools with different school subject background belong to three districts of Andhra Pradesh i.e. Nalgonda, Khammam and Warangal.
The tools are constructed based on the objectives of the study and for the purpose of data collection as mentioned below: 1. Status Reports on Computers (SRC) 2. Personal Profile of the Teachers (PPT) 3. Computer Knowledge Test (CKT) for the Teachers. 4. Teachers Attitude on Computers (TAC) 5. Applications and Usage of Computers (AUC) by the Teachers.
The investigator has selected a suitable research method called Normative Survey Method for the present study.
Data analysis was carried out by using different statistical methods with the help of SPSS.
1. Majority of the schools (65%) have 11 to 20 computers in their schools. The remaining 20% of schools have 6 to 10 computers and 10% of schools have below 5 computers. Only 5% of the schools have 21 and above computers in the schools. 2. The majority of the schools (70%) possess two computer instructors. The remaining 25% of schools have one computer instructor and only 5% of schools have three instructors. 3. Most of the schools (90%) have internet facility; whereas only 10% of the schools do not have internet facility. 4. Majority of the schools (50%) have below 2 trained teachers whereas 30% of the schools are having 3 to 5 computer trained teachers. Only 20% of the schools have 6 and above computer trained teachers. 5. Fifty percent (50%) of the schools are giving orientation to the teachers on computers but the remaining fails to give orientation to the teachers on computers. 6. Majority of the schools (90%) have printers, 75% of the schools have scanner, 85% of the schools are having pen drives & net drives and only 35% of the schools have LCD projectors. 7. Up to 2008-09 academic years, 80% of schools didn t have computers in the schools. Only 15% had only one computer in the school, 5% of the schools had 2 to 5 computers in the schools. In Academic year 2008-09 to 2010-11, 90% of the schools had 6 and above computers in the schools. After 2011-12 academic year 95% of the schools had above 6 computers in the schools. 8. Ninty percentage (90%) of the schools are using computers for the purpose of teaching-learning, 65% of the schools are mostly using for the purpose of Administration, 15% of the schools are using for personal needs and 10% are for other purposes. 9. Hardware is the major problem faced by the teachers to use computers in the schools (60%), whereas 30% of the schools have power problems but only 25% of the schools have virus problems. 10. Majority of the respondents (80%) suggested that teachers / administrators should be oriented / trained in computer courses, 15% of respondents suggested that computer maintenance should be done by Government. only but not by private agencies. Only 10% suggested that attractive salaries should be given to the computer instructions. 11. Majority of the teachers (68.8%) have not undergone any computer training courses, whereas 31.3% of the teachers have attended the computer training courses. 12. Majority of the teachers (74.4%) do not possess the computers, whereas 25.6% of the teachers possess the computers.
The study reveals that most of the schools do not have adequate number of computers in schools for supporting the effective teaching learning process. The schools have failed to organise training / orientation programmes for their teachers though they have internet facility and computer peripherals such as printers, scanners, pen drives, LCD projectors etc., available in the schools. The teachers have also not shown interest in attending the computer training programmes and they do not have own computers at home. They are using limited hours of computers at net centers and schools, where the time is limited and busy with classroom work. Even the teachers are not reading the magazines related to the computers. If this trend continue in schools will hamper the quality of teaching at school level and the future of the students will be affected. The results revealed that no significant difference was found in relation to gender, age, teaching experience, professional qualifications (B.Ed and M.Ed) and locality, but significant difference was found in computer knowledge in management of schools, academic qualifications (UG and PG) and teaching subjects of teachers. It is observed that teachers working in Success schools, Post Graduate teachers and Mathematics teachers are performed better in Computer knowledge test. The teachers working in non-success schools, graduate teachers, Science, Social Studies and Language teachers need to encourage in acquiring computers knowledge otherwise as Sadera (1997) says, they may not able to conceptualize advanced ways of using computer in the classroom. Further, they may not experience the rapid knowledge explosion in the world and can not integrate ICT in teaching. The attitude of teachers was measured to know their degree of acceptance on computers. The results show that no gender, age, management of schools and teaching experience differences were noticed in attitude of teachers towards computers. The attitudinal differences on computers were found in locality, academic qualifications, professional qualifications and subject taught by the teachers.
Keyword(s): application of computers , teachers at secondary level