Objectives of the study:
To examine the existing teacher education curricula in terms of its relevance to the emerging diverse educational contexts.
To study whether the existing practice of teacher education curriculum transaction equips the trainees to meet their professional requirements
To prepare a profile of the teacher educators.
To analyze the perceptions of stakeholders (teacher educators teachers, community, etc.) with regard to the prevailing teacher education programs, and
To study how far the present day teacher education programs are able to achieve their objectives in operation.
Does the existing teacher education curricula fulfill the needs of emerging diverse educational contexts?
Does the existing practice of teacher education curriculum transaction equip the teachers to meet their professional requirements?
What is the existing profile of teacher educators?
How do the stakeholders perceive the teacher education program?
How far teacher education program is able to achieve its objectives in operation?
a) Selection of university
3 universities of Haryana viz., Maharshi Dayanand University, Kurukshetra University and Chaudhary Devi Lal University
b) Selection of colleges of education
6 colleges were selected namely
Vaish College of Education, Rohtak
K.M. College of Education, Bhiwani
Hindu College of Education, Sonepat
R.B.S. Colleege of Education, Rewari
B.P.S. College of Education, Khanpur Kalan
Vaish Arya Kanya Mahavidyalaya College of Education, Bahadurgarh
c) Selection of stake holders
80 stake holders representing various sections of the community viz., school principals and teachers, college of education principals and senior teacher educators from Education Faculty of M.D. university, parents of students and students who had passed B.Ed. Recently, who were either doing M.Ed. or had started teaching in schools.
d) Selection of interviewers
About 61 interviews were conducted and data was collected from 3 Board of studies Members (the curriculum makers), 12 B.Ed. Students, 11 school principals/teachers 6 parents, 25 teacher educators (principal and senior teacher educators), and 2 visiting faculty of M.D. University.
e) Case studies
Case studies were conducted on 6 school teachers who had recently passed out of B.Ed. College of Education affliated to M.D. University, Rohtak only
f) Sample description of teacher educators and prospective teachers from college of education.
8 teacher educators and 87 prospective teachers from Vaish College of Education, Rohtak
7 teacher educators and 72 prospective teachers from Gaur Brahmin College of Education, Rohtak
3 teacher educators and 65 prospective teachers from C.R. College of Education, Rohtak
6 teacher educators and 79 prospective teachers from Government College of Education, Bhiwani
6 teacher educators and 73 prospective teachers from K.M. College of Education, Bhiwani
10 teacher educators and 147 prospective teachers from Hindu college of Education, Sonepat
8 teacher educators and 70 prospective teachers from T.R. College of Education, Sonepat
6 teacher educators and 76 prospective teachers from R.B.S. College of Education, Rewari
7 teacher educators and 73 prospective teachers from S.P. College of Education, Rewari
8 teacher educators and 134 prospective teachers from R.L.S. College of Education, Sidhrawali
7 teacher educators and 57 prospective teachers from B.P.S. College of Education, Khanpur Kalan
5 teacher educators and 25 prospective teachers from Vaish Arya Kanya Mahavidyalaya College of Education, Bahadurgarh.
4 teacher educators and 75 prospective teacher educators from B.S. Anangpuria Institute of Education Alampur
7 teacher educators and 97 prospective teachers from Shiv college of Education, Tigaon
6 teacher educators and 70 prospective teachers from M.R. College of Education Faridabad
6 teacher educators and 60 prospective teachers from M.L.R.S. College of Education, Charkhi Dadri
36 prospective teachers from Government College of Education, Narnaul.
Tool for Content Analysis
Status study of Teacher Education Institution
Teacher Educators Profile
Perceptions of Teacher Educators towards Teacher Education Program
Perceptions of Prospective Teachers towards Teacher Education Program
Stake Holders Perception towards Teacher Education Program
Instrument for Classroom Observation
Semi-structured Interview Schedule
Lesson Plan Rating Instrument
Method: The principal investigator (P.I.) conducted an exploratory research study, which involved survey of perceptions of teacher educators, prospective teachers and stake holders which involved field work, interviews and case studies.Statistical Technique: Percentage analysis
Findings: Status Study of Colleges of Education Affiliated to M.D. University, Rohtak
The status study of colleges of education affiliated to M.D. university, Rohtak revealed that
There were 21 colleges of education by the end of session 2004-05, 2 financed by the state Government, 10 by UGC (95%) and management (5%). Remaining were self financing.
Fees for students of Government colleges and UGC sponsored colleges is Rs. 16000/-, whereas that of self financing college is Rs.32000/-
Only one college of Education has been granted "A" by NAAC, 4 B++, 4 B+, 5 B and 1 C+. Some colleges year of origin is 1951, 1953 and 1955.
All colleges of education run B.Ed. course, 4 run M.Ed, 3 are also running D.Ed. Course.
Working days vary from 200 to 220 days, with about 6-7 hours per day.
An Entrance Test is conducted by M.D.University, Rohtak for selection of candidates for admission.
In each college, the number of students varies from 90 to 170.
Number of teacher educators varies from 7 to 13. Non-teaching staff varies from 5 to 11.
Building area varies from one acre to more than 10 acres.
Number of classrooms varies from 7 to 20 with 2 to 8 toilets.
All colleges have ET, Psychology, Science and Computer laboratories.
Library is well stocked with books (about 25, 520 in one college) Journals and Newspapers are also available
Colleges organize community work related to environmental protection, eco-work, etc.
Co-curricular activities are regularly conducted by colleges
There is a variety in work experiences offered by colleges, such as candle making, interior decoration, drawing and painting, preparation of teaching aids, handling of equipment, embroidery, making best out of waste, vegetable growing, photography, etc.
Placement cell, first aid medical facilities are also available
Objective 1 : To examine the existing teacher education curricula in terms of its relevance to the emerging diverse educational contexts.
Content analysis of the B.Ed. curriculum of M.D. University, Rohtak was conducted in the light of the above objective and it was found that the curriculum was not taking care of all the aspects identified by the various PI's and senior educationists of NCERT.
Indian heritage is partially reflected in the B.Ed. curriculum.
LPG is minutely reflected in the curriculum.
Teacher is performing traditional roles of being a stage on the stage, disseminating information, demonstrating teaching, organizing and conducting micro-teaching, simulated teaching and block teaching, giving feedback and guidance in practical work and acting as an agent of social change to some extent. New roles expected from the teacher i.e. of a facilitator, resource mobiliser, expert in handling technological gadgets, etc. needs immediate focus.
Learner's skills are taken care of only with respect to the normal students, the prospective teachers are not given any practical training to deal with special groups with special/ diverse abilities and solve classroom problems.
Values are partially reflected in the curriculum.
Partial development of new skills is there among prospective teachers. Other skills required such as life skills, managerial skills, pedagogical skills need to be developed. Skills/competencies of teacher educators needs to be improved, only then the same of prospective teachers will improve.
Learning process is not encouraging any reflective thinking. The teacher educator has to teach lot of theoretical portion that does not provide time or opportunities for critical inquiry etc. But, sadly life long learning, self-directed learning are also not encouraged
National and international goals are also partially taken care of.
Books are mostly authored by teacher educators of colleges of education affiliated to M.D.University, Rohtak, but are available in both English and Hindi medium. No proper objectives are provided in front of each chapter. Sequence of content is similar to the one in syllabus. At the end of each chapter, essay type questions are given.
Lesson plans need lot of improvement. As is the planning so is the implementation. Planning does not involve new instructional strategies, so even implementation is routine. Lecturing, Lecture-cum-demonstration, questioning with traditional media like charts, models, pictures, flashcards or OHP (rarely) are used by prospective teachers during teaching practice.
Practical files have beautiful pictures, but are not developed with creativity.
Micro-teaching and simulated teaching precede block teaching practice and students prepare micro-lessons and mega lessons for each teaching subject.
Theory papers are dominated by essay type or short notes questions.
About 50 percent choice is there.
In skill of teaching examination, a panel of 3 or 4 examiners view the teaching of one lesson of each teaching subject.
In practical files, mostly there are files and viva. Sometimes, external examiner asks student teachers to practically show the work experience.
In computer practical, student teachers are expected to develop a document.
Thus, it may be inferred that the present teacher education curricula is partially relevant to the emerging diverse educational contexts.
Objective 2: To study whether the existing practice of teacher education curriculum transaction equips the trainees to meet their professional requirements.
Classroom Observations of 56 teacher educators in 6 colleges of education revealed that the existing teacher education curriculum is partially equipping the trainees to meet their professional requirements
Teacher educators partially perform the role of a facilitator, as mostly they do not show trust on student teacher's learning potential, or guide them to acquire information from various sources or motivate students to explore, discover and reflect on the theme. They follow learner-centered method partially, vary instructional activities for student sometimes, but classroom is managed well.
Teacher educators partially use OHP but do not at all use computer web-based learning, interactive self-learning, multimedia and videoconferencing for teaching. Only one practical of computers is there and another handling of equipments.
Teacher educators partially discuss issues beyond the syllabus or jointly engage in analysis, synthesis, problem solving and creative thinking, sometimes connect theme to real life situation, or other disciplines, only sometimes raise contextual issues or integrate new information with their previous knowledge. They do not develop student teachers as life long learners and do not encourage them to engage in self directed learning.
Teacher educator partially demonstrates professionalism by developing the theme without looking at prepared written notes,present up to date information, mould teaching according to the learning situation. They establish good rapport with student teachers, show concern/care towards student teachers, exhibit concern for punctuality in the classroom and encourage cooperation in the classroom. Only two educators showed the importance of changing curriculum with changing times and guiding student teachers to undertake research on various educational problems. There is hardly thrust for excellence in some of teacher educators.
Regarding curriculum transaction outside the classroom, lots of files have to be developed by student teachers for each work experience and practical of theory papers. Practice of practicals is lesser.
Student teachers are trained in various teaching skills through micro teaching, simulated teaching and block teaching practice and they have to develop micro and mega-lesson plans both.
Teacher educators and student teachers organize co-curricular activities together.
There is no provision for any internship.
Objective 3: To prepare a profile of the teacher educators
The existing profiles of 104 teacher educators were obtained from 16 colleges of education affiliated to M.D. University and the main findings were:
48 per cent teacher educators were male and 52 percent female
36 percent of teacher educators were in their 40's and 25 percent in their 30's, 15 per cent were in their 50's and nearing retirement.
50 per cent of teacher educators are Ph.D.
Only 20 percent had more than 25 years of teaching experience, 10 percent more than 5 years and 36 percent less than a year's experience.
Only 28 percent had participated in seminars/workshops and only 23 had presented one or more papers.
41 percent had attended two to four orientation/refresher courses.
15 percent had worked as resource persons.
8 percent had innovated and applied it in their profession.
Only 17 percent had published papers in Indian journals.
28 percent had written books for B.Ed. students.
26 percent teacher educators had provided research guidance atM.Ed. level, and 10 percent at Ph.D. level.
Only 8 percent teacher educators had conducted project work sponsored by UGC, ICSSR and MHRD. Only one teacher educator had worked on an International Project granted by Government of France.
Almost all teacher educators participated in organization of cocurricular activities
50 percent of teacher educators were members of some Academic bodies.
40 percent of them knew MS word, 26 percent the Internet, 25 percent MS excel and 22 percent Power Point.
About 10 percent teacher educators had received some award.
67 percent were completely satisfied with their job and 28 percent partially satisfied.
Objective 4: To analyze the perceptions of stake holders (teacher educators, teachers, community, etc.) with regard to the prevailing teacher education program.
Perceptions of teacher educators towards teacher education program.
104 teacher educators filled up the questionnaire and the data revealed that:
Various papers of B.Ed covered 70% of the essential content.
B.Ed course is not completely appropriate in the present day context.
50 percent teacher educators felt that the curriculum lacks practical utility.
Relative weightage of different papers should 80:20, 10:40 or 50:50 for theory and practice.
Regarding method of teaching course, relative weightage should be 50:50 or 60:40 for theory and practicals.
Mostly teacher educators followed lecture-cum-demonstration method, project method, discussion method or lecture method. Fewer teacher educators used brain storming, problem solving or CAI.
Use of technological gadgets is partial, only 51% used OHP, rest used charts or models. A minority used computer.
Teacher educators were of the opinion that technology aided learning, inclusive education and e-learning are highly needed to be incorporated in the instructional processes.
Mostly teacher educators are satisfied with various aspects of practice teaching, but modifications are needed with regard to time duration, which should be increased and number of student teachers assigned per teacher educator should be decreased because they face problems for giving individual feed back.
Regarding practical aspect of B.Ed curriculum , they felt that some modifications are necessary such as less of file work, more innovative practicals, small groups of syudents and computer practical should be compulsory for all.
Relative weightage to theory, practice teaching and practicum should be 50:30:20, 50:25:25 or 40:30:30 or 25:50:25.
Internal and external evaluation should be in the ratio of 50:50, 20:80, 30:70, 60:40, 40:60, etc.
In theory exams, there should be a combination of short and long answer questions. Objective type questions should be added. Both continuous and comprehensive evaluation should be there.
Teacher educators felt that they have only partially achieved the competencies, but they would like to become more competent. Teacher educators felt that better study material should be available and developed through workshops and seminars.
Teacher educators try to relate learning activities to Indian context by providing examples from Indian society, such as gender bias, caste bias, environmental problems, etc.
Majority felt that academic climate of the institution was good.
Teacher educators felt that they have not received training for dealing with problem/special students, or solving discipline problems in the class.
Level of academic motivation of student teachers was high according to 50 percent teacher educators.
69 percent teacher educators were satisfied with their career
57 percent said they would definitely enroll for the TEP again.
72 percent regarded themselves as average teacher educators, 17 percent as exceptional and 11 percent as below average teacher educators
-73 percent believed that participation in in-service programs or workshops could help them to become a better teacher educator and a good professional.
Perceptions of Prospective teachers regarding the teacher education program
1296 prospective teachers from 17 colleges of education contributed their thoughts regarding the TEP. Data analysis revealed that:
Majority of student teachers were around 22-25 years of age.
About fifty percent of them of them belonged to rural areas.
71.53 percent were graduates and remaining were post-graduates.
Overall, they found the various aspects of TEP as average, with respect to field based experiences, teaching practice and theoretical transactions
Prospective teachers felt that on the whole the TEP is adequate in giving theoretical knowledge, developing teaching skills, managing classroom and teaching in real classroom situation.
63.4 percent said that teaching was their first choice as career and 72.8 percent responded that if they had to do it all over again, they would still like to enroll for the TEP.
Stakeholders perceptions towards the Teacher Education Program
Data was obtained from 80 stakeholders who represented different sections of the community. The findings revealed that:
Majority of the stakeholders found the TEP average in preparing prospective teachers.
50 percent exhibited satisfaction with teachers who taught their children.
The future teacher, according to the stakeholders should be able to perform diverse roles that of a facilitator, role model, curriculum developer, agent of social change, think global, love teaching children, effective communicator, patriotic, dedicated to the profession, impartial and fair and encourage independent thought.
Stakeholders expected the TEP to enhance knowledge of pedagogy of students, extend knowledge of child related needs and problems, encourage creativity, teach for joyful learning, use cooperative learning techniques, teach problem solving to students, plan stimulating lessons and use variety of instructional strategies, use computers and other media with ease, conduct research and participate in seminars.
Interviewees responses towards the Teacher Education Program
An analysis of 61 interviews revealed that:
Changes were made in B.Ed. syllabus from the session 2002-03, after consulting UGC's model syllabus of B.Ed. and NCTE norms. Syllabus was practice-oriented. Each theory paper was divided into 5 units with internal choice except paper III-A & B, which had 3 units with internal choice for examination.
Chalkboard writing, handling of available equipments, preparing teaching aids were made compulsory for all. In paper IV, computer literacy practical was introduced, which was compulsory for all.
Syllabus should be revised in the light of ICT, LPG, more stress on practice, linking community and school, national and international understanding and training teachers to perform new roles.
TEP duration should be increased and theory portion should be decreased.
Each student teacher should also be initiated into research
TEP should be of international standards.
In the classroom, lectures should be minimized and learner centred methods with scope for critical thinking should be used.
Teacher educators should be trained in the use of latest technological gadgets so that they can train prospective teachers properly.
Teacher of the future should be technosavvy, a good person, friend, philosopher, guide, friendly, facilitator, motivator, approachable, understand learner's psychology and have a balanced personality. Teacher will have to protect cultural and moral values and be a role model.
Duration of teaching practice should increase and student teachers should participate in all activities of the school.
Teaching practice should be conducted in English medium schools also, and conducted with modern techniques.
Internship should be started.
In theory papers, there should be both objective type and essay type questions. At least two examiners should check each paper for increasing objectivity.
50% Internal assessment should be started
In skill in teaching examination, marks should be allotted skill wise and there should be a panel of examiners
For work experience practical, students should perform the practical, rather than just be evaluated on the basic of viva or files.
For the future, TEP should be application based and gear up future teacher to face real life classroom situation
TEP should change with changing times and challenges.
Only qualified teacher educators should be appointed.
Self financing colleges of education should not be allowed to mushroom.
B.Ed. correspondence courses should be stopped to avoid degradation of quality of TEP
TEP should help in professional growth of teachers by organizing workshops, seminars, extension lectures, etc.
There should be co-ordination between university and college of Education and NCERT
Interaction with stakeholders is essential before making changes in TEP.
There is too much stress on files than on practicals.
TEP is producing unfit teachers according to some stakeholders
Educational system needs to be overhauled as it is not producing good human beings. So, moral/value education should be part of every stage of education.
TEP should be of 2 years with 1 year of internship.
Objective 5 To study how far the present day teacher education programs are able to achieve their objectives in operation.
6 case studies were conducted on newly appointed teachers in schools in urban and rural areas to study the effectiveness of the present day teacher education program which was implemented in 2002-03. These novice teachers had passed their B.Ed. after implementation of the new B.Ed. curriculum. Only those teachers were taken who had passed their B.Ed. from colleges of Education affiliated to M.D. University, Rohtak. The various case studies of novice teachers revealed that:
B.Ed. curriculum helped them to become a good teacher by telling about various teaching skills, helping them to understand students psychologically and enabled them to teach effectively and preparing teachers for the future.
More stress should be laid on teaching practice than theory.
Number of files should be reduced.
Duration of teacher education program and teaching practice should increase
There should be internal assessment.
Teacher Education Program for the future should be technology based. Staff of the colleges of education should be experienced and expert in use of new technological aids.
Strong points of B.Ed. curriculum are knowledge of teaching skills, educational psychology and helping the teacher to adjust to the institution and face future circumstances.
Weak points are excess number of files, short duration of teaching practice, more emphasis on theory, lack of interest, discipline and sincerity and most of the theory is of no practical use.
On the whole TEP is very important so it needs to be modified.
An analysis of various teaching learning episodes revealed that teacher of the future should:
be of good character
be of good behaviour
be a good human being
be of understanding nature
help in problem-solving
be master of his/her subject
care for students' feelings
be impartial and helpful
help students to overcome their bad habits
guide students to study better and attain better
Truly, nobody forgets a good teacher.
Educational Implications: The heart of the matter is the day-to-day interaction of teachers and students. Without competent, creative, and caring teachers who expect and demand the best from themselves and from all their students, other changes will have little effect. Teachers must model the content mastery, the inquiry skills, the responsibility, the character, and the excitement for learning that they expect of their students. In turn, those who educate teachers must be models of exemplary practice. Research on both student and teacher learning strongly suggests that the way one is taught is a much stronger
influence on learning than what is said.
Teachers must have the support of other educators, families and communities to help create rigorous, relevant and safe learning environments for both students and teachers. A well-supported teacher workforce of excellence that is also reflective and responsive to the diversity of students is imperative.
The findings of this project focused on where teacher education is and to raise some challenges about where teacher education ought to be and what changes teacher educators ought to make. I believe that through education, individuals are better able to fulfill their roles and responsibilities in a democratic society. The education of the people must therefore be the first concern of a democratic state. This means that teacher educators must have the courage to change the education system. They must have the courage to insist that each generation receives the knowledge, the skills, and the training that will prepare children to help the nation fulfill its democratic mission. The new world now in the making demands that all educators become brazen, bold, skeptical of the established order, and fearless in the face of a fearsome future. The world that is dawning demands above all a change in educators' attitude towards change Today's change confronts educators with a harsh voice. They can be either victims of change or agents of change.
However, India will not be prepared for the cataclysmic changes and colossal challenges of the 21st century unless teacher educators recommit themselves to finding more effective ways to prepare teachers who are to prepare future generations to address those changes and challenges.
Keyword(s): Pre service teachers, Prospective teachers, Stake holders, Curriculum