Kasinath, H M. (2003). A STUDY OF SEQUENCE OF LOGICAL THINKING OPERATIONS IN MATHEMATICS AMONG DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.. Unpublished. ERIC, Education
Objectives of the study:
To compare the variations in attainment of logical thinking operations in mathematics among children belonging to SC and ST category; ST and General Category and SC and General Category.
To study the interaction effects of sex, caste and attitude towards mathematics on attainment of sequence of logical thinking operations in mathematics;
To study the relationship of logical thinking operations with academic achievement in mathematics among SC, ST and General Category students.
To determine the relative efficiency of the logical thinking operations in predicting academic achievement in mathematics among SC, ST and General Category students.
To determine the direct and indirect effects/paths of set of logical thinking operations on academic achievement in mathematics among SC, ST and General Category students.
To determine the cluster of logical thinking operations in terms of their contributions to variation in academic achievement in mathematics among SC, ST and General Category students.
Samples used:
The study was confined to the students of IX Standard studying in Kalghatgi taluka, Dharwad district during the year 2001-2002. from the population of 1141 students (SC-96, ST-80 and General Category-965), the samples of 303 students (SC-34, ST-20 and General Category-249) were selected using random sampling technique.
Tools used:
Logical Thinking Operations Test In Mathematics
An Attitude Scale Towards Mathematics
An Academic Achievement Test In Mathematics
Research Method:
Survey and analytical (descriptive) methods of research were used in the study.
Statistical Techniques used:
Statistical techniques used in the study are t- test, 3- way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson’s Product Moment coefficient of correlation technique and Multiple Regression Analysis, Path Analysis and the Principle Component Factor Analysis.
Findings:
Socio-economic status of SC and ST students has a beneficial effects on the attainment of logical thinking operation ‘Observation’.
There is relationship between advantaged and disadvantaged background of the students and their ability Inference.
Caste has a beneficial effect on the attainment of the logical thinking operation ‘Application’.
The logical thinking operation ‘observation’ has no significant relationship with academic achievement in case of SC and ST category students, whereas it is having positive and significant relationship with academic achievement in SC, ST and General Category students.
The logical thinking operations like ‘coding’, ‘inference’, ‘application’ and ‘problem solving’ are having positive and significant relationship with academic achievement in SC, ST and General Category students.
Favorable and unfavorable attitude towards mathematics influence upon logical thinking operations ‘Coding’ and ‘Application’.
Sex and Caste, sex and attitude ; and caste and attitude taken two factors at a time jointly influence upon logical thinking operations ‘Coding’.
Further, the interaction among all three selected factors- sex, caste and attitude- influence upon logical thinking operations ‘Coding’ and ‘Application.
The coding seems to be the best predictor of academic achievement in mathematics. The next predictors in the order of priority, are ‘inference’, ‘Application’ and ‘Problem-solving’ in case of SC category b students.
‘Inference’, ‘Observation’ and ‘Problem-solving’ are the best predictors in case of General Category students.
In case of ST category students the ‘inference’ seems to be the best predictor of all the predictor variables. The next best predictors in the order of priority are ‘Coding’, ‘Observation’ and ‘Problem-solving’.
The operation ‘Observation’ in SC category students and ‘Application’ in ST and General Category students will have suppressing effect on the academic achievement in mathematics.
In case of SC students, the logical thinking operation ‘Coding’ has direct positive significant effect on the academic achievement in mathematics. Further, operations like ‘Observation’, ‘Coding’ and ‘Inference’ have indirect significant effects on achievement in mathematics.
In case of ST students, the logical thinking operations like ‘Observation’, ‘Coding’ and ‘Inference’ have direct positive significant effects on the academic achievement in mathematics. Further, ‘Observation’, ‘Coding’, ‘inference’ and Application have indirect significant effects on achievement in mathematics.
In case of General Category students, the logical thinking operations like ‘Coding’ and ‘Inference’ have direct positive significant effect on the academic achievement in mathematics. Further, operations like ‘Observation’, ‘Coding’, ‘Inference’ and ‘Application’ have indirect significant effects on achievement in mathematics.
The operation ‘Inference’ and ‘Application’ have been clustered under a single group (factor) with high factor loading. This implies that these two operations in SC, ST and General Category students play a major role in the overall success of IX standard students in mathematics. Also the operations ‘Observation and Coding’ incase of SC students; Problem-solving in General Category students have been clustered under a single group with high factor loading.
This shows that incase of SC category students the operations ‘Observation’ and ‘Coding’ plays a major role in the achievement in mathematics. However, in case of ST category students, the success in mathematics depends upon operations ‘Problem-solving’ and ‘Observation’. Also in General Category students the operations ‘Coding’ and ‘Problem-solving’ to a greater extent determine the academic success of IX standard students in mathematics.
Educational Implications:
Some of the implications of the research findings are given below:
Since there is no difference in the thinking operations between boys and girls, between students of Aided and Government schools, provision of facilities and adoption of new models of teaching will stimulate and foster the thinking skills irrespective of gender and type of schools.
Since the scheduled caste students lagged behind in the level of thinking operations in mathematics than the other students, the teacher should take some remedial measures to motivate the backward students, and provide suitable activities, and instructions to help them to acquire the thinking operations. The motivational intensity for learning and achievement of scheduled caste students should be given a boost.
Since the present study stem from the cognitive theory, it can provide a general framework for analyzing learning difficulties in mathematics of disadvantaged children.
The disadvantaged children are lagged behind in the attainment of sequence of logical thinking operations in mathematics, the teacher can take some remedial measures to motivate the backward students, to provide suitable activities, and to organize instructions to help them to acquire the thinking operations.
The sequence of logical thinking operation is in decreasing order from ‘Observation’ to ‘Problem-solving’ care must be taken to conduct suitable activities with ‘problem-solving’ situations where in the teacher can help to develop the different thinking operations in mathematics.
Achievement in mathematics and sequence of logical thinking operations are positively correlated, teachers can provide conducive atmosphere to learn mathematics and to create interest among students.
There is a need for reapprasing the existing school curriculum to incorporate a wide range of thinking processes and skills which are ignored but are essential to facilitate learning to think and learn.
The study has also implications on the syllabus and textbook construction to provide sufficient exercises to enable the disadvantaged students to develop their logical thinking operations.
Keyword(s): Logical Thinking, Academic achievement, Disadvantaged children