Objectives of the study:
Objectives of the study are to estimate overall wastage rates in terms of stagnation (repeater) and dropout rates separately for girls and boys and for rural and urban areas and for children belonging to scheduled caste and scheduled tribe categories.
Sample of the study:
The sample contains nine educationally backward states namely Andhra Pradhesh, Assam, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir Madhya Pradhesh, Orissa, Rajastan and Bihar.
All the children studying at primary stage of education in recognized schools of the concerned states from 1979-80 to 1981-82 constitute the population of the study.
Questionnaire prepared by the investigator
Design of the study:
Findings of the study:
From the findings, it was revealed that the state Andhra Pradhesh has a very high dropout rate at the primary stage for all pupils in general and SC and ST pupils in particular. One-third of the pupils completing the cycle did so without repeating and the remaining two-thirds repeated one year or more. While more than four-fifths of the pupil years spent in excess are attributable to dropouts, the remaining ones are attributable repeaters who completed the cycle.
Overall dropout rate at the primary stage is quite high for all pupils particularly for those belonging to Scheduled Tribes. The data reflects an appreciable difference in the dropout rates for pupils in rural and urban schools, the rates being higher in case of the rural schools.The percentages of pupil-years spent in excess is higher for boys than for girls of all communities, there does not seem to be any difference in the two percentages for SC and ST categories. The percentage of pupil-years spent in excess attributable to dropouts is quite high for all pupils, especially for SC and ST Pupils.
Bihar has a high dropout rate with more than 59% pupils dropping out before completing primary stage among all the categories of children. It is noted that girl dropouts are more among rural children in comparison to urban children with exception the exception in case of scheduled caste where dropout is higher among urban pupils in comparison to rural pupils. Again stagnation in the state is also very high with only about one-third children completing the cycle without repetition. The internal efficiency of system is quite low. The low internal efficiency with high dropout and stagnation result into high amount of wastage.
Jammu and Kashmir has very high dropouts at primary stage particularly in the case of girls were 82% of these girls from all communities dropouts before completing the primary stage. The corresponding figure in case of the Scheduled Caste is 60%. the situation in the case of boys is also not very encouraging where 41% of them amongst of all communities and 48% of among scheduled castes dropout before completing primary stage. The internal efficiency of the system is quite low particularly in the case of girls. The low internal efficiency and high dropouts results into high amount of wastage.
Madhya Pradhesh shows a very high d4ropouts at primary stag particularly in the case of ST pupils where 74.1% of them dropout before completing the cycle. Also, the input and output ratio is very high particularly in the case of ST children where this ratio is 2.75 which shows that the internal efficiency of the educational system in the state is low.
The state of Orissa has very high dropouts particularly in the case of ST girls where 78.1% of them dropout before completing the cycle. Also the input/ output ratio is quite high in the case of ST girls, which shows that the internal efficiency of the educational system is very low. The indicators of educational wastage such input/output ratio, overall dropout rate and percentage of pupil-years spent in excess are higher for rural schools as compared to urban schools. Further these indicators are higher for girls in comparison to boys.
In Rajastan, the percentage of pupil-years spent in excess is higher in the case of SC and ST girls as compared to SC and ST boys. Further this percentage is higher for SC and ST children in comparison to children belonging to all communities.
In Uttar Pradesh, Input/ output ratios and overall dropout rates are higher for girls than for boys of SC and all communities. Further, in case of total enrollment, these indicators are higher in rural schools than in urban schools.
The state West Bengal has a high dropout rate amongst pupils of all categories with more than 57.9% children dropping out of schools before completing primary stage. It is as high as 82.5% amongst ST rural children. It is also noted that girls dropouts are higher than boys amongst all categories of children. Also dropout is higher in urban areas amongst all while in case of SC and ST pupils it is higher in rural areas.
Keyword(s): Dropout Rates