Lalwani, Kishi. (2003). A Study of the factors affecting the educational development of the girl children, and their teaching-learning conditions in the Hadoti Area. Unpublished. Ph.D., Education. Kota Open University.
Objectives of the study: To study the factors affecting the educational development of the girl children in the Hadoti Area. 2. To study the teaching-learning conditions of the girl children in the Hadoti Area.
The study cuts across all the four districts of Hadoti, namely, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawad and Baran. 16 government primary schools equally distributed on these four districts constitute the sample of the study. Further, a sample of 400 girl children has been selected comprising of 50 rural and 50 urban from each district. A sample of 16 teachers has been selected comprising of 2 rural and 2 urban from each district. 128 parents have been selected constituted of 16 rural and 16 urban from each district.
Questionnaire and interview schedules were constructed for collecting data from parents and teachers. An observation schedule was designed to gather data on social conditions and teaching-learning conditions.
Survey method was used to conduct the study.
The data were analysed through percentages. Also, content analysis was used for data analysis.
Findings of the study: The percentage score of parents going out for job in the rural areas has been found considerably larger than that of urban parents in all the four districts of Hadoti. The rural area of Bara district has obtained highest percentage ( 84%) of the outgoing parents. Largely the girl child looks after the rest of the family in their absence. • There is 100% response in favour of freeship with respect to text books and food from all the sample children. • The basic educational needs of a large majority of sample children are not satisfied by their families. Similar status has been reported with respect to their brothers and sisters. • A large majority of the children are largely deprived of the company of their parents. Only 6% rural and 23.5% urban sample children are in a position to have the company of their parents.The researcher has predicted its consequences. But to what such a state is attributed ? What are the ways out ? • A large majority of the children depend upon self study. Only a minority gets private tuitions. • A large majority of the girl children from all the four districts have responded that they are discriminated infavourably against their brothers. Brothers are favoured more by the parents. Brothers have been found to contribute only a little in the house hold work along with their sisters. • Veil tradition is still prevalent in most of the areas. • Parents are more worried about the marriage of their girl children rather than concerned about their education. • Medical facilities are comparatively less available to the rural children than to the urban children. As a whole the medical facilities are not satisfactory. • The text material has been found not adequately available for all the children. • Subject wise teachers are not adequately available. The number of male teachers has been found generally greater than that of the female teachers. • The teachers have been found to be given extra academic duties by the State Government, which has been found affecting the education of the children adversely. • Usually, the parents have not been found escorting their children to the schools. The children go and come on their own on foot. Rarely there are transport facilities. • In rural areas the schools have been found located at significantly larger distances. • In rural areas the children have found facing problems on their way to school during changing weathers. The school buildings are not secure during bad weathers.• A large majority of children have reported that they do not learn much from the school instruction. There is a need to bring about change in curricula.• Rarely there is provision for co-curricular activities and vocational education. There is no provision for moral education.• Largely the children have found the oral examination merely a formality.• No sincere efforts are made by the teachers to control copying in the examination.• Support material in the form of Audio-Visual aids is rarely used by the teachers.• Innovative techniques are rarely used by the teachers. It may be either dueto indifference or lack of training.• Space for accommodation for children is not adequate. Also, there is a lack of furniture.• Teachers have been found facing difficulties due to large student strength and limited space for accommodation.• Sometimes the children have to undergo physical punishment due to non-compliance. • A large majority of children interact freely with their teachers. Rarely the children were found hesitant. • A large majority of girl children like to be taught by the female teachers. • The girl children in the rural areas are not in a position to get proper guidance from their teachers in problematic situations.• No systematic efforts are being made for establishing relationship among parents and teachers. The responses of the children are divided regarding communication of their progress reports to their parents.• All the children like to be instructed through the latest technologies. • Most of the parents find their income inadequate to meet the expenditure incurred. They try to makeup for the deficiency through additional sources, debt, child labour and other means.• There is a lot of expenditure on addiction, disease, and debt. There is some expenditure for the education of children. • Most of the parents are not in a position to send all of their children for education. The causes as identified by the investigator are child marriage, business of the girl child with the domestic work, boys working with parents, poor economic condition and negative attitude of the aged people and the caste people. • There are some factors impeding the education of children, such as, distance of the school, lack of proper teaching organization, business of teachers, and school climate. • More than the administrative factors, they find family, social and economic factors impeding the education of the children. • There is gender discrimination in relation to education. Boys are given more importance than girls. • Parents rarely get the educational progress of their children. • Urban parents have been found more in favour of co-education than rural parents. • Most of the parents have suggested that there should be a law for compulsory education. Education for the girl children should be free. There should be provision for special education for girl children. There should be provision for separate schools, scholarship, and transportation . • There is co-education in all the schools of Hadoti. As against 100 boys the enrollment of girls varies from 60 to 80. The co-education and distance of school from home and inattention of the parents are the causes attributed to the relatively low enrollment of the girls. • There is problem of low enrollment and wastage in most of the schools. The wastage is relatively more from standard I-III. It has been attributed to the state of parents. • The teachers are of the view that they keep communicating the progress of the children to the parents. Cross validation of the data with that received from the parents suggests that the parents do not get the progress reports. The fact needs to be established. • Many physical, economic and administrative factors have been found adversely affecting the education of the girl children, namely, lack of adequate appropriate space for studies, drinking water, toilet facilities, and play fields. Inadequate budget and staff and extra academic duties have been impeding the girl child education. The staff transfer policies have been reported baseless. The latest teaching material and media are not available. • The teachers find the primary education curricula wanting. They have suggested that home science, moral education, environmental education and social sensitivity subjects should be incorporated into the curricula. They find Board Examination at Standard V level and Mass Promotion irrelevant. • The schools are understaffed. Clerical work is taking lot of time of the teachers. • The teachers have been found dissatisfied with the present level of enrollment of the girl children. • The socio-economic factors have been found affecting the teaching learning conditions of the girl children.
Keyword(s): educational development , girl children, teaching-learning