The objectives of the study were: (1) To explore the difference between efficient and deficient learners, boys and girls, and students of IV and V grade on their meta-cognitive knowledge. (2) To find out the magnitude of relationship exists between cognitive, affective variables and meta-cognitive knowledge. (3) To determine the independent and interaction effects of grade, sex and learning status of students on cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective variable. (4) To identify the significant predictors of meta-cognition and achievement in science, mathematics and language. (5) To ascertain the role of meta-cognition in alleviating learning disability.
The hypotheses of the study were: (1) Efficient learners will have better meta-cognition than deficient learner at primary stage. (2) There will be no significant difference between boys and girls on meta-cognition. (3) There will be no significant difference between students of IV and V grade on meta-cognition. The same patterns of hypotheses were repeated for cognitive and affective variables learning status and gender covered in the study. (4) There will be no significant relationship between meta-cognition and self-esteem of girl students according to their learning efficiency. The same patterns of hypotheses were repeated for cognitive and affective variables covered in the study. (5) There will be no significant relationship between meta-cognition and self-esteem of boy students according to their learning efficiency. The same relational hypotheses were repeated for rest of the cognitive and affective variables. (6) There will be no significant independent and interaction effect of grade level, sex and learning status on meta-cognition. The same patterns of hypotheses were tested for other cognitive and affective variables included in the study.
Stratified random sampling procedure was used. 20 schools were selected from Ajmer city. Efficient and deficient learners were identified on the basis of their total achievement scores in science, mathematics and language from grade IV and V of each school. Students having 60% and above marks were categorized as efficient learners and 30% and below were named as deficient group. There were altogether 200 students constituted the total sample having equal number in sex and grade groups.
Tools used for data collection were: Self-esteem Inventory by Cooper Smith, Achievement Motivation Questionnaire by Argyle and Robinson, Level of Aspiration Scale by Singh and Tiwari, Intellectual Achievement Responsibility by Crandall, Raven’s Colour Progressive Matrices and Questionnaire to study Meta-cognition developed by the investigator.
The present study was correlational as well as descriptive.
The data were analyzed with the help of statistical techniques, like, product movement correlation ANOVA, ANCOVA and multiple regression analysis.
The findings of the study were: (1) Efficient learners were found better than deficient learners in general ability, meta-cognitive skills, achievement in language, science and mathematics and all the affective characteristics. (2) Girls were superior to boys in meta-cognitive skills. (3) In Hindi and science subject, girls were performing better than boys. (4) Girls were more oriented towards hope of success than boys and also possess high achievement motivation. They have better self-esteem and attributed their success and failure to own ability. (5) Students of higher grade (V) had more general ability than lower grade (IV) students. Same trend was appeared for achievement marks in English and Science. However, they did not differ significantly in any of the affective characteristics. (6) Generally meta-cognition was found to have significant positive relationship with cognitive and affective variables except fear of failure. (7) In case of efficient learners meta-cognition was not related to any of the cognitive and affective and variables. (8) Meta-cognition had positive significant relationship with achievement in science, language and general ability of deficient learners. (9) Only achievement in science was significantly related to meta-cognitive skills of girl students classified as efficient learners. For deficient group, language achievement had significant relationship. (10) In case of boys, classified as deficient learners, significant relationship existed between language achievement and meta-cognition but not for efficient group. (11) The independent variables grade, sex, group and learning level had significant interaction effect on meta-cognitive skills of students. (12) External locus of control was interactively influenced by students’ grade and learning level. (13) There was an interaction effect of grade and sex group on achievement motivation of students. (14) The level of aspiration of students was interactively influenced by their grade, sex group and learning level. (15) The interactive influence of sex group and learning level was significant in case of general ability of students. (16) Meta-cognition was best predicted from the general ability / intelligence of students at primary level. In addition to it, the affective characteristics, like, locus of control, level of aspiration and self-esteem of students also significantly affect the improvement of their meta-cognitive skills. (17) Meta-cognition skills of students significantly influence their achievement in science, mathematics and language. The affective variables, like, achievement motivation, locus of control and self-esteem also enhanced the achievement level of students at primary level. (18) Meta-cognition was found to be an important powerful discriminator for efficient and deficient learner as a whole as well as among boys and girls. (19) Internality for negative events was appeared as a discriminator for total efficient and deficient learners as well as girls. (20) In case of boys, general ability was found to be powerful discriminator in addition to meta-cognition.
Keyword(s): Meta-cognitive, Deficient Learners, Correlates