Objectives of the study:
To examine the existing teacher education curricula in terms of its relevance to the emerging educational context.
To assess the ongoing process of teacher education curricula in relation to its objectives to identify gaps.
To assess the ongoing process of teacher education curricula in relation to the professional requirement of the future teachers.
Preparation of profile of teacher educators and examine in relation to the needed competence of teacher educators in changing contexts.
Analyze the stake holder’s perception of present day teacher education programme.
The quarries through which it was ascertained as to what extent the Existing Teacher Training fulfills the objective laid down, were as under:
Does the existing teacher education curricula fulfill the needs of diverse educational contexts?
Does the existing practice of teacher education curriculum transaction equip the teacher to meet their professional requirements?
What is the existing profile of teacher educator's?
How do the stakeholder perceive the teacher education programme?
How far teacher education programme is able to achieve its objectives in operation?
To collect data suitable sample is required. In the present study sample has been taken form the teacher training colleges affiliated to the MDS University Ajmer. At the time of proposal there were 18 teacher training colleges affiliated to the MDS University Ajmer. Later on with the formation of two new universities ie, Bikaner and Kota only 9 teacher training colleges were left with MDS University Ajmer. These are
Govt. IASE Teacher Training College, Ajmer
Jialal Teacher Training College, Ajmer
HBU Mahila Teacher Training College, Hatundi Ajmer
Tagore Teacher Training College, Kekri
Teacher Training College, Shahpura
ND Mahila Teacher Training College, Bhilwara
JNV Teacher Training College, Badmer
Teacher Training College, Badayali
Sabal Mahila Teacher Training College, Borunda.
Out of 9 colleges two are in Ajmer city. Hence selecting IASE Govt. TT college from Ajmer all the other 7 colleges were contacted to cooperate in the research study. But TT colleges at Kekri, Shahpura and Badayali didnt show interest. As a result the sample was taken from remaining five TT colleges. Selecting five teacher educators, five pupil teachers and five in-service teachers graduated from selected colleges a total of 75 individuals were interviewed who formed the sample of the study.
Method of the study:
Best and Kahn (1996) while classifying types of researches has put this type of work under descriptive studies. Though not all descriptive studies fall under the category of research. But the evaluation procedures that use rigorous research methodology may be termed as evaluation research (Ruttman 1977). The purpose of evaluation here is to see if a given programme is working, if an institution is successful according to the goals set for it. And in this way the present study focus to see the effectiveness of B.Ed. programme in the diverse educational context. The tools used in such studies are interview, questionnaire to seek opinion and observation of teaching class and review of records etc.
Since this study will form a part of the national picture, a broad framework was evolved in a workshop where all Pis were met to maintain uniformity in data.
Findings of the study:
Society is dynamic. Change is inevitable with time. Change in the society affects the social philosophy and its effect can be visualized in all the fields including education.
Teacher is said to be the torchbearer in the society and also deemed responsible to shape the future of the country. Hence teacher education programme is needed to be evaluated time to time. Though efforts are made by all the universities through their Board of Studies to update syllabus of teacher education time to time. But in the last two decades, changes are so fast in all the fields including education that the existing teacher education programme appears to be stereotype. It is in this reference that the existing B.Ed syllabus of M.D.S university has been analyzed for divers educational context: perspectives, practices and prospects.
The study has been carried out using separate tools (questionnaire) for different aspect/objectives. The very first objective was to see the relevance of the content in the diverse educational context. Study shows that all the ten parameters are not reflected in all the core papers. practicum and methodology of teaching papers. In core papers it is only paper III, which includes maximum content expected in the tool. Next is paper I where eight parameters are reflected but their concentration is weak. In paper II, IV and V five parameters are totally not reflected.
In methodology paper it is history. which reflect all the parameters except 4to some extent. Next is economics and science where eight parameters are reflected.
If the content in B.Ed. curriculum is to be seen with reference to ten parameters, they are reflected above 50% at 24 places, reflected from 10% to 40% at 51 places, and totally not reflected at 35 places. It can be concluded that the syllabus if expected to be woven around these parameters the existing teacher education syllabus of MDS University does not fulfill its objectives.
Opinion of pupil teachers, in-services teachers and teacher educators were also sought on the relevance of the content. Majority of pupil teachers and in-service teachers were of the opinion that most of the philosophical portion of paper I have no relevance in the present context. Content related to Indian thinkers should be included. In their opinion existing curriculum does not help
in the development of moral values, to make them aware about human rights, to become fe long learner, and to develop ability to work as facilitator, resource mobilizer, and curriculum developer which is the need of the time.
School should work as an organic part of the community. Hence the teacher-training curriculum must include activities to develop skill to work with community. But in the opinion of the teacher educators existing training programme does not provide this opportunity.
The NCF 2005 talks about inclusive education where children of special need are supposed to study together with other children in any school. But the existing B.Ed. programme does not help in the development of such skills. On the contrary one teacher educator said, " We guide them to go to schools made for them. Though majority of the pupil teacher and in- service teacher said that the B.Ed. training programme helps in building confidence, improve teaching. On the other hand a small section of in-service teacher said, "The training is not very useful."
The other important part of teacher educations programme is pedagogy. This is dealt in methods of teaching papers and practicum i.e. teaching practice.
Method of transaction plays important role in comprehension. Therefore special attention is given on this aspect in the teacher-training programme. Two teaching periods are devoted per day for content cum methodology where in different transaction methods, strategies and techniques are discussed and demonstrated. To make teaching child centered and activity based the use of educational technology is promoted. In a study Bracelett and Laferriere (1996) have found that integrating technology into teaching has a positive impact on learners. It strengthens their cognitive abilities and increases their level of motivation. Therefore ET, which was earlier taken as an innovation in the classroom, has now been included as one of the foundation paper in B.Ed. course. As a part of the course in methods of teaching students now a day learn use of computer for running various educational programmes (software), use of internet and organize teleconferencing. To practice all these, a pupil teacher is placed in a school, which is known as practice teaching session. Since the classroom observation in the training college was not possible to know about the quality of methods of transaction imparted to pupil teacher during training, the lesson plan note books, collected from teacher training institutions were reviewed. In all 543 lessons were reviewed. The study indicates that lecture cum question answer was the most commonly used method by the student during teaching practice. Application of ET was limited to use of charts.
Pupil teacher and in-service teacher also said that their teacher during training used only lecture method with question answer technique While teacher educators said that they followed project method, group discussion, field trip, brainstorming. laboratory method in addition to lecture method, which does not appear to be correct.
The information about methods of teaching adopted by the pupil teacher type of teaching aid used during teaching. comments given by the supervisor were drawn from the lesson plan notebook.
Teaching practice is another important aspect of teacher education programme where pupil teacher applies skills learned in theory and try to attain mastery in profession. In the opinion of pupil teachers and in-service teacher teaching practice is more important then theory I should be given more weight-age and duration should also be increased. Teacher educators are also not satisfied with the way teaching practice is being organized
Teacher educator were asked to given suggestions if not satisfied. In their opinion the following could be considered
Duration should be increased
It should be internship and not just teaching practice
Make it more practical
Needs qualitative improvement
Students may be motivated for innovation
More stress be given on micro-teaching
Teaching is a profession. It appears vary odd in listening this in our country. But in present context it is another important aspect of teacher education programme. It is expected that the teacher education programme should aim to develop various competencies in an individual and transform him into a competent and devoted professional functionary.
The analysis of the opinion expressed by the teacher educators on various items under ten competencies is not encouraging. This reveals that the existing content of the teacher education programme (B.Ed.) offered by the MDS university Ajmer is not very much helpful in the development of required competency in the pupil teacher.
The study reveals that the percentage who agree with the statement is less than 50% in six cases and it is less than 30% in three cases. It is only in case of competency No. 6, percentage who agree with the statement is 57%, this competency is related with the development of various types of teaching aids.
The improvement in teacher education is not limited to revise the course content, pedagogic approach or use of E.T. The academic achievement of teacher education their contribution in academic field should also be taken into account. One of the objectives of present study was to see the teacher educator’s profile. In private institution re-employment of retired faculty is a common practice. In the present study 11% of the sample of teacher educators were retired government servant. All the teacher educators including in the sample are M.A./M.Sc and M.Ed.. but NET which is an important condition as per UGC norms, only 6% of the sample were NET qualified. In M.Ed 54% have I division, 27% have II division 6% have III division and 12% did not depose.
Computer literacy, which is an important aspect, now a days, only 21% of the sample were found having functional knowledge of computer. Keeping in view the financial aspect, social environment and academic freedom 51% said they were satisfied with the job; 39% said partially satisfied 3% said unsatisfied and 6% were silent on this issue. This indicates that their opinion is not stress free. When asked to give their views about B.Ed. Programme, 50% teacher educators were of the opinion that the existing teacher education programme was helpful in achieving its objective only theoretically. They were also of the opinion that one-year time with 20 days practice teaching is not sufficient to prepare effective teachers, as they donot get full opportunity to develop teaching skills.
Pupil teachers, in-service teachers and teacher educators, gave following suggestion which in their opinion may be considered in B.Ed programme.
Teacher taught relation be more intensified.
Teaching practice duration should be increased and it should be made more practical.
Course content should be revised and B.Ed should be of two year durations like BSTC.
Action research be made integral part of the course.
More use of E.T. in teaching and innovation.
teaching practice be made more practical with more time and attention.
More application of E.T.
Computer education be made compulsory.
Community participation be made integral part of the course.
Guidance counselling should also be included.
School management should be included.
Pass percentage for B.Ed should be 60%.
Computer education be made compulsory.
Value education, Sex education, Environment education should be added.
Keyword(s): Pre-service Teacher Education, in-service teacher education