Objectives of the study:
To identify and study constraints relating to access, retention and performance of children of Tribal population at primary and elementary education levels in Andhra Pradesh.
To access the constraints pertaining to teaching-learning process and curriculum and management.
To identify and examine the successful strategies under different school management(Local bodies, Non-governmental organizations and private) and compare them with other practices for the promotion of tribal education.
Sample of the study:
Sixteen villages (schools) were selected- eight from roadside and eight from inaccessible remote areas. There are total 1029 households listed in all the villages together. The data is collected from 16 villages, 16 schools, 24 teachers and vidya volunteers, 636 children and 335 parents. Bhagat, Konda dhora, Koya, Lambada and Yanadi from Vishakapatanam, Khammam, Mahabubnagar and Nellore districts are covered for the study.
Tools of the study:
Eight research tools (questionnaires) to different categories of respondents such as parents, students, teachers, headmasters, community leaders and Mandal resource persons, village leaders. The important research tools are Household Members listing schedule, parent schedule, Village and school information sheets and community and teacher schedules.
Design of the study:
Frequency count and percentage analysis
The study reveals that there is gender gap to an extent of 10 to 25 percentage points. The similar trend is observed in the case of level of education of tribal population of the selected districts in general and female population in particular.
The households of Bhagata tribe are having small landholdings. The occupational pattern of these tribal households which are close by roadside are engaged in NTFP collection, sheep rearing in addition to their regular activity ie, agriculture. The child labor participation is mostly in the form of firewood collection, fetching drinking water and domestic work. The respondents belong to Yanadi, Koya and lambada tribes stated that they studied up to intermediate level.
The data indicates the poor response from getting the help to complete the homework or reading at home. All the children are satisfied with the Mid-Day Meals programme. The children belonging to lambada (9.9%) and Yanadi (8.4%) and Konda dora (7.9%) are not enrolled in school. A major percentage of students are in upper primary and secondary are from Lambada and Bhagata tribes.
The profiles reveals that the constraints in promoting education among tribal children are long absence during festivals which affects their learning abilities. Most of the children work in plucking cotton or lemon gardens for wages or on own farm by skipping classes for long duration. The tribal population in the selected villages is migrating to neighboring areas in search of livelihoods resulting disturbing the academic activities of children.
The female children, particularly in the age group of 8 to 10 years and belonged to the migration households are discouraged to attend school regularly or encourage either marriage or engage them as labor . Some of the parents feel that female children do not need education, as marriage is the ultimate goal.
The children dropout at 7th class because for many villages, the high school is at a distance of 10kms and beyond. The strategies include ITDA distributed dresses to children, teach in Koya bhasha for 1st and 2nd classes, primary school teachers take care of children education, teacher uses learning material, radio lessons in slow intervals to make the slow learner sollow, Naandi foundation supplied books and dresses to girls.
The other constraint is that the teacher is irregular. However the programmes like mid day meals is regular.
The class wise dropout rates indicates that children are withdrawn at 2nd class or 4th class. The dropout ratios are high for girls in fourth class.
Keyword(s): Scheduled Tribes