Objectives of the study:
1. To inquire into the desirable characteristics of teachers working in higher education;
2. To inquire into the need for academic orientation of teachers working in higher education;
3. To inquire into the curriculum of academic orientation of teachers working in higher education
4. To inquire into the process of teaching-learning methodology of academic orientation of teachers working in higher.
5. To inquire into the nature of academic orientation programs for higher education teachers.
6. To develop strategy for assessing the effectiveness of the academic orientation programs for higher education teachers.
Sample of the study:
The sample of the study consisted three different types of respondent.
a) Participants sample
b) Resource Persons sample
c) College students sample
a) Participant’s sample:
All the three ASCs of Delhi were chosen for the participant’s sample. The data were collected from 27 participants of each university namely Deli University, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia. Total 81 participants were chosen of them 58 were male.
b) Resource Person’s Sample:
Twenty Resource Persons were selected, out of them 19 were male and only one resource person was female. The majority of the resource persons (12) were from the age group of 46-65 and (5) from the age group 56-65.
c) Sample of College Students:
The sample of 180 students was taken out of which 122 students were from Deshbandhu College and remaining 58 were from Sri Aurobindio College, New Delhi.
· Questionnaire for the Resource Persons of AOP
· Questionnaire for the Participants of AOP
· Teachers Characteristic Scale
· Interview Schedule
Statistical Techniques used:
1) Nature of AOP:
Basically the purpose of orientation of teachers working higher education are to update the existing knowledge, develop the skills of teaching and awareness and personality development of teachers. Professional Orientation is desirable to a great extent at higher stage. The major problems with respect to methodology of teaching are classroom controlling, lack of effective communication and expression, problem of creation of good academic atmosphere, and misbehave by the students. The major problem with respect to the subject upgradation is content understanding and problems with respect to the psychological factors are confusion and hesitation. Unable to cover the syllabus in time, lack of facilities and irregular classes are the other problems which teachers are facing. The purpose of Participants Admission in academic orientation programs is knowing new methods and techniques of teaching. Linking of AOP with the career advancement scheme will be motivating factor for the teachers. If program is to be organized on full-time basis, the duration of orientation program at the higher stage should be 5 weeks and if it is to organized on half-time basis then the duration should be 6 weeks. The college teaching during orientation program is not possible even if the program is organized on part-time basis. Because most of the participants belong to the other universities. Status of organizing academic orientation program should be like an autonomous body. The university organizing orientation program should take the participant from the colleges of neighboring universities or colleges. The orientation program should be organize in every five years for the same participants. The orientation program should be organize throughout the year. The hostel facilities is extremely necessary for the participants attending academic orientation program. The physical facilities being provided during orientation program are of average type. The number of books available in the library of ASCs are not satisfactory.
2) Curriculum and its transaction:
The focus of orientation program should be pedagogy, use of computer and other advance media and content enrichment. Content of pedagogy should include teaching methodology, curriculum planning and development, and reference and study skills. Content enrichment program should be focused on recent innovations in the subject, refreshing existing knowledge and research method for the subject respectively. Evaluation methodology should focus on interpretation, discussion and conclusion; preparation of test and administration of test respectively. The methods to be practiced during orientation program are discussion; project; lecture; demonstration and panel discussion. The important topics related to social consciousness are casteism, social heritage/change/awareness, Environmental pollution, culture and moral education; topics of social consciousness are constitution, voting/voting age/ voting rights/ voting behavior, religion and politics, India and the world; topics of economic consciousness are bank scam, capitalization & its advantage and price hike; and the topics of scientific consciousness are latest computer technology/ applications, environment, AIDS etc. Strong points of curriculum are it is a progressively, utilitarian, well organized/systematic, helps to understand lecture discussion/ interaction and teaching methodology, and able to update the knowledge of teachers. The weak points of the curriculum are it is an irrelevant, old, and conservative and does not give practical work. Curriculum is acceptable to a great extent. But it is suggested to reduce its load quantitatively. Lecture notes should be provided in cyclostyle form. More practical work should be done. Lecture should be very brief and discussion session should be given more time. During lecture transparencies should be used and use of blackboards can be done if necessary, so that the time taken during lecturing will be less. Resource persons should not read full lecture from annotated material. Topic should be dealt practically and proper interaction should be done. Learning Material used during AOP was inadequate/ unsatisfactory. Lecture-cum discussion, tutorial programmed learning, seminar and brain storming method should be used by the resource persons.
Evaluation of participants should be made compulsory at the end of orientation program. Evaluation of participants should be done either by resource persons or self-evaluation should be done by the participants. Evaluation of participants should be continuous and comprehensive which can also be done through questionnaire and can be a part of discussion with the participants and also through some project work. Monitoring of program should be done by self-appraisal and next to observation of ASC staff. It can be done through student’s observation. The good teachers should be innovative, ideal, good communicator, accountable, punctual, know pedagogy and his subject and also continuously keep himself update with the knowledge. The good teachers should not participates in unwanted politics, come unprepared to the class, give incomplete, incorrect knowledge to student, leave like businessmen, satisfied with the knowledge he gained when he was studying, think that his learning is over with the placement of his job.
4) Desirable Characteristics of Teachers:
Students do not desire a fully flexible teachers may be to avoid expected indiscipline problems in the classes. The same is true in case of creative democratic and stimulative teachers also. The qualities given in the S.D. scales can be taken as global norms for good Indian teachers. The main qualities emerging out of the present study include- skillful, responsible, well organized, well prepared, interested in the subject, helpful, systematic, interested in the students, effective communicator and enthusiastic respectively.
5) Qualitative Inquiry of Academic Orientation:
College teachers are facing various problems during their day to day classroom teaching viz. communication, delivery of lectures, handling of students etc., to overcome these difficulties they need a systematic orientation. This orientation program should be linked with career advancement scheme, but with a flexible strategy so that teachers can participate willingly. A follow-up committee should be form to co-ordinate the impact and follow-up studies.
Keyword(s): Academic Orientation, Higher Education