For the purpose of this study the researcher framed following objectives phase wise: v IDENTIFICATION PHASE:1.To ascertain the economics teaching anxiety scores of the PSETs. 2.To identify the economics anxious PSETs. 3.To study the causes underlying PSETs anxieties about economics. 4.To ascertain the economics teaching efficacy beliefs scores of the PSETs. 5.To ascertain the pre intervention ESMK scores of the PSETs in economics concepts. 6.To ascertain the pre intervention EPCK scores of the PSETs in teaching economics concepts. v INTERVENTION PHASE: 7. To develop three phase intervention module for –a) Scaffolding the growth of ESMK and EPCK of the PSETs about teaching economics concepts for lesson planning through Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), b) Enhancing economics teaching efficacy beliefs of PSETs through expanded micro teaching. 8. To implement three phase intervention module for – a) Scaffolding the growth of ESMK and EPCK of the PSETs about teaching economics concepts for lesson planning through CSCL,
b) Enhancing economics teaching efficacy beliefs of PSETs through expanded micro teaching. v EVALUATION PHASE: 9. To ascertain the post intervention ESMK scores of the PSETs in economics concepts 10. To ascertain the post intervention EPCK scores of the PSETs about teaching economics concepts
11. To ascertain the post intervention economics teaching anxiety scores of PSETs. 12. To ascertain the post intervention economics teaching efficacy beliefs scores of PSETs 13. To compare the pre and post intervention ESMK scores of the PSETs in economics concepts. 14. To compare the pre and post intervention EPCK scores of the PSETs about teaching economics concepts. 15. To compare the pre and post intervention economics teaching anxiety scores of PSETs.16. To compare the pre and post intervention economics teaching efficacy beliefs scores of PSETs. 17. To study the pattern of collaboration among PSETs during the lesson planning activity in CSCL environment. 18. To study the perceptions of the PSETs of expanded micro-teaching with respect to their professional preparation.
1.There is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention economics teaching anxiety scores of Pre Service Economics Teachers (PSETs).
2. There is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention economics teaching efficacy beliefs scores of PSETs.
3. There is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention Economics Subject Matter Knowledge (ESMK) scores of the PSETs in economics concepts.
4. There is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention Economics Pedagogical Content Knowledge (EPCK) scores of the PSETs about teaching economics concepts.
The population for the present study comprises of the preservice economics teachers of B.Ed College affiliated to University of Mumbai.
Sampling Technique: The researcher followed the convenience sampling procedure defined by McMillan (2000)[i], where a group of participants is selected because of availability.
Sample Size & Main characteristics of the sample:
For the purpose of this study, there were twenty pre-service economics teacher participants (N=20), with a range of gender, age and educational background (i.e., B.A, B.Com, M.A). The preservice economics teachers were from Pillai College of Education & Research, Mumbai.
The researcher used the following instruments for data collection in this study:
1. 1. Demographic information:
PSETs demographic information consisted of: name of the student, gender, age, Educational Qualification, No. of years of experience.
The pre-intervention interviews helped to identify the causes of PSETs economics anxiety. The collection of individual data was necessary as it ensured that reliable information was gained.
A semi-structured interview was developed in order to examine the perceived utility of computer supported collaborative learning and expanded microteaching to enhance efficacy beliefs and in reducing teaching anxiety in PSETs.
The final Economics Teaching Efficacy Belief Scale (ETEBS) was a Likert type scale made up of 30 items. The dimensions of the tool were: Teacher’s perception of economics, Ability to teach economics effectively, Level of economics teaching proficiency, Level of economics preparation, Belief about good teaching and its influence on student performance and success, Ability to communicate effectively, Efficacy in instructional strategies, Efficacy in classroom management. Reliability was found to be 0.882.
The researcher used ESMKT at the beginning and at the end of the intervention programme to measure growth about economic concepts in PSETs. The proposed items involved a more comprehensive coverage of the standard IX economics curriculum. All items were scrutinised by an experienced team of economics method masters for comment. Reliability was found to be 0.97. The item analysis was done by computing the discriminatory index of each item. The test was based on Blooms New Taxonomy.
For the measurement of PSET’s PCK of Economics education, a slightly adapted version of the Teaching of Technology Test (TTT) was used (Rohaan et al. 2009). EPCKT was a multiple choice test and contained 15 items with four answer alternatives each. Reliability was found to be 0.67 (n=38).
CSCL notes that included as attachments the PSETs’ group lesson planning activity plus their comments about other PSETs lesson planning activity were collected and viewed on a regular basis by the researcher. CSCL had automatic tracking programmes which provided data about patterns of browsing, commenting, rating of lesson plans. This enabled the researcher also to assess changes in the PSETs patterns of collaboration and discourse.
The researcher used an observation schedule for every lesson given by PSETs. It was a yes/no type two point scale. The purpose of this schedule was to find the following areas: 1.Content organisation, 2. Use of resources and learning environment, 3. Teaching method/skill, 4. Teacher student interaction.
After giving every lesson each PSET was required to write their reflections based on the framework prepared by the researcher. This framework had sixteen questions.
This study was constructed on the mixed method type embedded experimental design. An embedded experimental mixed-methods design featured the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data with one data set playing a supplemental role to the other. In this study the quantitative data informed the data collected in the major portion of this study. These quantitative data included an initial pre-test and post test survey (N=20), a primarily quantitative instrument and qualitative data collection in the form of semi-structured interviews that guided the selection of subjects and stimulated further interview questions. For the second phase of the study, which is a set of instructional phase consisting of computer supported collaborative learning training programme, expanded micro teaching approach, observation schedule and reflection notes implemented on limited number of PSETs (N=20).
This study used ASSURE instructional design model which is one of the classroom-oriented models. The ASSURE model is a six step instructional guide for planning and delivering technology-supported lessons with great focus on addressing learner needs. This model assumes that instruction is not delivered using lecture only. It will be especially helpful for instructors designing online courses. The model emphasizes: teaching students with diverse learning needs, and constructivist learning where students are required to interact with their environment and not passively receive information.
This study was conducted for the period of six and half weeks. This phase of the study occurred from 17th September 2012 to 1st November, 2012. This schedule of activities was complex, as it required rigorous lesson planning, implementation of lesson plans.
Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were utilized in this study.
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES OF DATA ANALYSIS
The contributions of the statistical techniques are considerably high in the process of analyzing the data. In the present study, two types of analyses are adopted:
The statistical techniques used by the investigator for the descriptive analysis of data are as follows:
i) Measures of Central Tendency: These include the mean, the median and the mode.
ii) Measures of Variability: These include the standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis.
iii) Estimation of the population parameters of mean and SD.
iv) Graphical Methods: These include frequency polygon graphs, pie charts
In the present research the techniques of inferential analysis used were t’ test.
Qualitative data from the Pre- and Post-intervention interviews, observations, Meta-Studio shared data base and the written reflections were analysed. There were two forms of analysis within this study. The first form involved analyzing the lesson planning and enactment activities. The first coding scheme was developed for that stage to address the quality of PSETs activities, knowledge, reflections, and community participation. The second form of analysis involved to analyse in detail the perceptions and experiences of the PSETs regarding the expanded microteaching for enhancing the efficacy beliefs and reducing anxiety in teaching of economics. The researcher adopted an interpretive qualitative research approach to gather and analyse the semi-structured interviews as well as the reflections. The researchers used an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach to gain insights in to the way PSETs perceived and experienced the expanded microteaching approach as an instructional tool for enhancing efficacy beliefs and reducing anxiety in teaching of economics.
1. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention economics teaching anxiety scores of PSETs. The statistical technique used to test this hypothesis was t’ test. The obtained value of t’ was 9.59 which was higher than the table value. Thus t’ is significant for the pre and post intervention economics teaching anxiety scores of PSETs.
2. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention economics teaching efficacy beliefs scores of PSETs. The statistical technique used to test this hypothesis was t’ test. The obtained value of t’ was 6.88 which was higher than the table value. Thus t’ is significant for the pre and post intervention economics teaching efficacy beliefs scores of PSETs.
3. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention SMK scores of the PSETs in economic concepts. The statistical technique used to test this hypothesis was t’ test. The obtained value of t’ was 8.48 which was higher than the table value. Thus t’ is significant for the pre and post intervention SMK scores of the PSETs in economic concepts.
4. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the pre and post intervention PCK scores of the PSETs about teaching economics concepts. The statistical technique used to test this hypothesis was t’ test. The obtained value of t’ was 6.92 which was higher than the table value. Thus t’ is significant for the pre and post intervention PCK scores of the PSETs about teaching economic concepts.
After the initial familiarisation reading of the transcripts, the transcripts then were read more closely. From this reading an initial set of emerging themes were identified.
Causes of economics teaching anxiety:
· Acknowledging and building upon experience
CSCL environment, performance of collaborative groups and lesson planning:
Expanded Microteaching experiences and professional preparation:
· Lesson Sequence (planning and organization, flow)
· Feeling of Accomplishment
· Insight into lesson delivery
· Improvement of Classroom Management
After the implementation of expanded microteaching in CSCL environment all twenty teachers were able to build a strong bondage. All twenty teachers were optimistic about group learning, and believed that it opened their eyes more towards alternative teaching methods. Furthermore, it changed their perception about the traditional teaching methods. Before implementation of the expanded microteaching programme PSETs perceived economics as abstract subject which is a theory based. But due to the lesson planning in groups and implementation of lesson planning, PSETs got an opportunity to discuss and elaborate the economic concepts which helped them to get an insight about the economic concepts.
In short, the participants perceived the expanded microteaching as useful in enhancing both subject matter knowledge in economics and pedagogical content knowledge. Expanded microteaching provided PSETs with knowledge and skills for lesson planning, developing learning activities and implementing such lessons in classrooms. PSETs acknowledged the benefits that this approach could bring for their teaching economic concepts.
· It is vital for teacher education programs to make connections between theoretical and methodological issues. The best place for this type of education is the methodology courses where pre-service teachers are introduced to economics teaching methodologies, several teaching and classroom techniques.
· Teacher education programs can add a reflection component to the teaching practicum providing teacher trainees with opportunities to discuss their teaching experience what they have learnt throughout their education.
· Teacher education programs must not only prepare Preservice teachers to develop a economics curriculum, which stimulates ideas about economic concepts and confidence about economic concepts, but must also acknowledge and address economics anxiety, economics attitudes, and societal stereotypes and examine ways to attitudes towards economics, improve the teaching of economics, foster the development of economics literacy and therefore, decrease “economics anxiety".
· Equipping Preservice teachers with the tools to manage their anxieties may reduce its long-term effects in the classroom by producing efficacious and confident teachers who create a classroom culture that is positive, collaborative, creative, transformative, and supportive of student learning and achievement in economics.
Keyword(s): Preservice Teachers, Economics , Teaching Anxiety, Economics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs, Microteaching, Lesson Planning, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning