Objectives of the study
Understand and assess the roles and responsibilities of Panchayat structure in the state.
Assessment of the role of Panchayat level functionaries in the context of "Education for All (EFL), under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA).
Mapping of network of village level agencies and NGOs in the functioning of educational institutions
Assessment of nature and extent of involvement of local leaders/traditional authority structure in the functioning of school.
Find the nature of women and other disadvantaged/ marginalized group's perception and participation in the context of schooling of these sections.
Study the educational functionaries' perception of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).
What is the socio-economic and cultural composition of the Panchayat members in office?
What roles are delegated by the state to the Panchayat bodies in relation to education?
How are resources allocated and channelized to Panchayats for educational development and also for maintenance?
What is the level of understanding of Panchayat functionaries regarding EFA?
How does Panchayat level functionaries' participate in EFA?
What is the priority given by the Panchayat for its educational responsibility?
What other governmental and non-governmental entities are to be considered in mapping the networking of institutions horizontally and vertically?
How and when did such relationships start?
What is the socio-cultural milieu of the Panchayat?
What is the nature of perception held by women and marginalized sections about the functioning of schools under the Panchayat management?
What is the nature of educational functionaries' perception and behavior towards the changed situation in the management of education?
The data were collected from five panchayats of Bidupur block namely Khilwat, Navanagar, Sheetalpur Kamalpur, Bidupur and Chechar Panchayats. From each Panchayat three villages were selected constituting altogether fifteen villages. From each village sixty households were selected except for Sindhia Kamalpur village where only 32 households were interviewed. Therefore, a total of 872 households formed the universe of the study.
Schedules used in the study:
Household survey schedule,
Village Information schedule,
Schedule for Interview of Parents,
School information schedule,
Schedule for Interview of Principal/Head Teacher,
Schedule for Interview of Teachers,
Schedule for Interview of Child,
Schedule to get information of VSS profile and VSS president,
Schedule for Interview of VSS members,
Schedule for interview of Traditional authority/local leaders,
Schedule for Interview of Block Level Panchayat Samiti Chairman,
Schedule for Interview of Block Level Panchayat Samiti members,
Schedule for Interview of Members of NGO,
Schedule for Interview of BDO.
Design of the study
It is an exploratory study which throws light on the interfaces between various stakehoders in the process of decentralization in educational governance and on the actual empowerment of panchayats in terms of decision making, resource allocation, implementation, monitoring and accountability.Statistical Techniques: Percentage analysis
Findings of the study:
Except Khilwat and Sindhia Kamalpur in Khilwat Panchayat, all the villges are predominantly inhabited by backward (BC) and other backward (OBC) families. In Khilwat (63.3%) and in Sindhia Kamalpur village (71.1%) majority of the families belong to schedule caste. However, village Dilawarpur in Khilwat Panchayat is inhabited mainly by upper caste people (71.7%).
The villages in other panchayat namely Navanagar is mainly inhabited by backward families (68%) followed by upper caste (54%) and OBC (36%) respectively. In Sheetalpur Kamalpur panchayat, the Sheetalpur Kamalpur village has majority of upper caste (38.3%) followed by backward caste (35.0%) and other backward caste (25.05) families. SC families constituted only 1.7 percent of population in Ramdauli village, the population of OBC (38.3%) and upper caste (35.1%) was more or less equal followed by BC(18.3%) and SC (8.3%). In Bulan Sarai village of this panchayat majority of the families belonged to upper caste (40.0%) followed by BC (28.3%) and SC (20.0%). Other backward caste families only constituted to 11.7 percent.
Bidupur village and Bidupur Bazar village in Bidupur Panchayat have approximately half of the households (55.0%) each which belonged to upper caste families followed by OBC families which constituted 26.7 percent of the total households in Bidupur and 21.7 percent in Bidupur Bazar. Schedule caste families were not available in both the villages. However, in Bidupur Din village backward (63.3%) dominated the village followed by SC (16.7%) and upper caste (15.0%).
Chechar panchayat the dominant caste in all three villages are
Backward caste (51.7%, 33.3% and 51.7%) followed by OBC (28%, 35.0%
and 31.7% respectively) in Chechar, Chechar Uttari and Bagsaid khan
villages. Chechar Uttar village has comparatively more upper caste
(21.7%) families followed by Chechar village
(15.0%). Majority of schedule caste families (13.3%) belonged to
Bagsaid Khan village followed by Chechar Uttar (10%) and Chechar
The head of the families in these households are generally male members with a few exception. The majority of families have income in the range of 1000-3000 per month in all villages.
Cultivation is the major occupation of households but larger proportion of the population is engaged in wage labour. The families having no land (landless) is highest in the Sheetalpur Kamalpur (35%) and Ramdauli village (20.0%) in Sheetalpur Kamalpur Panchayat and in Bihwarpur (23.3%) village in Navanagar Panchayat.
Families having highest land holding (2o katha and above) are distributed in two villages of Nava nagar panchayat, in all three villages of Bidupur panchayat and in two villages of Cheehar panchayat. At the fourth rank comes two villages namely Ramdauli (20%) and Bulan Sarai (20%) in Sheetalpur Kamalpur village. In Khilwat Panchayat only one village namely Dilawarpur (457%) has families having more than 20 katha of land. Other two villages of this panchayat are at the lower side of land holding. A comparative picture of the land holding pattern shows that on the whole in navanagar panchayat more families are grouped in the bracket of 11 kathas and above land holding where as the families having no land or some land are also less in percentage followed by Bidupur and Chechar panchayat. Sheetalpur Kamalpur and Khilwat panchayat consists of more familes in the bracket of landless or having10 to 20 Dhur of land.
Occupational pattern of the household reflected that almost half (50.0%) of people in all five panchayat were labourers and daily wage earners, the number being highest in Khilwat, Sheetalpur Kamalpur and Chechar Panchayat. About 33-4 percent of population in all panchayats are engaged in agriculture. The remaining are distributed among service holders, business and housewife. Altogether 872 households were surveyed in all villages of five panchayats. The total family members living in these households constitute to 58.1 percent males and 41.8 percent females in the age group of 15 years and above. The number of total children in the age group of 6 to 14 years is 2778 in all 872 households, Among them 53.9 percent are males and 46.1 percent are female. The gender difference is evident in both age groups, however, in higher age group difference is more. More than sixty percent of children in all households in the age group of 6-14 years attend the school. This percentage is slightly low in village Khilwat and Sindhia Kamalpur in Khilwat Panchayat. The reason for remaining children not attending the school was attributed to under age of children and economic problem of parents which was responsible for children not attending the school.
Minial infrastructure is available for the education of children in Khillwat panchayat. However the shortage of teachers, especially the trained teachers in the village schools has been indicated.
The number of class rooms are only two in Dilawarpur but the building although the number of classrooms is four to five respectively. Primary school Dilawarpur and sindhia kamalpur are equipped with more or less similar facilities. The middle school Sindhia Kmalpur lacks some basic facilities as kaccha building and approach road, lack of toilet for all and for girls, drinking water facilities, TLM and even midday meal is not provided in the school.
The middle school Nawanagar has comparatively better infrastructure facilities in school including availability of teachers followed by middle school Mohanpur kazipatti. But at the same time of survey in class IV , out of 88 children only 8 were present in Navamagar school.
The presence of children shown in the register and actual presence in class shows a clear difference specially in upper classes in all schools.
Rajkiya Madhya Vidyalaya (School I) in Bulan Sarai is the oldest school in this panchayat and is better equipped with infrastructural facilities as against other two schools. Building is pacca, approach road is better.
One sub health centre is in Bulan sarai school. Iron tablets, vitamin A and Calcium tablets are distributed on every Monday. Teachers are regular in Bulan Sarai Middle School. The previous HM of the school was awarded president's award.
The other two schools in village Ramdauli and Sheetalpur Kamalpur are primary schools having less infrastructure facilities regarding toilets, drinking water, TLM.
The Bidupur Middle school is although the oldest school having a pucca building and sufficient number of rooms, it lacks some basic facilities like toilet for boys and girls, drinking water and TLM which is important for the development of teaching. Even the enrollment in school is low. Other two schools are primary schools which are more or less the same. The Primary school, Bidupur Bazar is comparatively better on providing the facilities like toilets, drinking water, etc.
Govt. Buniyadi vidyalaya, Chechar is the oldest school in Chechar Panchayat having more or less all the facilities in the school. The other two primary schools did not differ significantly on the facilities provided to school. Where the VSS are responsible persons, they provide some facilities in school from the school fund. In Bagsaid khan school VSS are literate and responsible. Buniyadi Vidyalaya Chechar seems to be one of the best school in all Panchayats on the basis of the facilities available in school. Next to it is middle school Bulan Sarai where the enrolment of children is high and number of teachers is also sufficient.
The basic facilities in all schools are lacking although the teachers and HMs have reported about the hand pumps and toilets being available in school but at the time of survey it was found that only few hand pumps were working and about 75 percent toilets in schools were in bad condition or not usable. Boundary wall is not available in 95 percent school.
The enrollment data of boys and girls in all fifteen schools were taken from the year 1999 to 2004. The data reflects that over the years, the enrollment rate has increased in all schools except in the year 2001. In Dilawarpur school in Khilwat panchayat, Ramdauli village in Sheetalpur Kamatpur panchayat and Bidupur Bazar village in Bidupur panchayat has more girls enrollment than boys in the year 2003 and 2004. All three schools are primary schools. In other schools of panchayat, boys enrollment is moderately high than girls.
The basic infrastructural facilities available in all fifteen villages of five panchayats were also taken into consideration. The facilities observed were availability of drinking water, electricity, primary health centre, other health centre, post office, conveyance, road and NGO. The current status of the villages showed the availability of water (not sufficient for all, people had their own hand pumps), electricity, conveyance and road facilities in most of the villages of the Block but primary health centre was only available in five villages, other health centre was available in only two villages. Post office was found in five villages namely Bidupur, Bidupur Bazar, Bidupur Dih, Bulan Sarai and Chechar.
Keyword(s): Decentralized Governance